The Relation Between the Satan and Lucifer the Morning Star
There are some references in the early scriptures that make it fairly easy to draw the connection between Lucifer and the Satan, in isaiah 14:12 through 15 it says-
“How you are fallen from heaven, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low! You said in your heart, I will ascend to heaven; above the stars of God I will set my throne on high; I will sit on the mount of assembly in the far reaches of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High. But you are brought down to Sheol, to the far reaches of the pit”
This passage in Isaiah can be seen as detailing the fall of Lucifer from heaven, how he aimed to place himself above the god and take the throne for himself but instead ended up in hell.
Morning Star or The Satan?
Ezekiel 28:17 also mentions this fall from grace :
“Your heart was proud because of your beauty; you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor. I cast you to the ground; I exposed you before kings, to feast their eyes on you."
These passages show Lucifer as the fallen angel, and not as the devil as we come to know him, it isn't until the account of the war in heaven in the book of revelations that mentions this fall belongs to the satan.
“And he said to them, I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven” there is no mention of the morning star or the fallen angel, in the revelations it's either satan or the dragon.
With this transformation from the most beautiful Angel to the fallen angel comes the change in appearance, Lucifer the Morningstar, the most beautiful of god's creation was a radiant being but with this fall from grace and demonization, Lucifer would now look more satanic, his once beautiful feathered wings would now be more Webbed like that of a bat, his face was warped and twisted and on top of his head, sat horns. What once was a personification of beauty and divinity now became a thing of terror with images of him not even resembling a human form.
Dante's Satan :
Peter bins filled identified seven demons that were classified as the princes of hell, each of them associated with one of the seven deadly sins, Lucifer of course represented the sin of Pride.
Dante's satan is a enormous demon with bat like wings and three faces who is frozen in ice at the very centre of hell, he also makes it known that satan was once an angel of light known as Lucifer, what Dante differs from the other authors is the way he portrays satan as grotesque, motionless and unable to speak, a giant slobbering mess who isn't the ruler of hell instead he resides there as a prisoner and receives the punishment just like all the other sinner's, which is very different from the Lucifer that we see in next piece of literature.
Paradise Lost :
The book of revelations doesn't directly tell you that Lucifer and satan are the same entity, but this connection between Lucifer and satan is one that authors and historians have embellished and developed over the years, one of the most famous examples of this would be john Milton's epic poem- Paradise lost.
This narrative follows the fall of mankind and one particular Angel, Milton's satan was Lucifer, one of the most beautiful angels in heaven who refused to answer to the word of God because according to him, Angles were born and raised themselves, they have no mother and no father so why should god have authority over them? It's better to reign in hell than serve in heaven. Milton's character is both cunning and charismatic, although Lucifer and his followers lost the great war and were cast from heaven, he was still able to obtain the power he desired, as he would reign in hell with those who sided with him.
Milton in a way, paints Lucifer in a heroic manner, Lucifer's beliefs weren't too different from Milton's own, who believed the angels should govern themselves instead of answering to God.
In paradise lost, Milton frames God as a tyrannical leader and those who oppose him, suffers his wrath. Lucifer for example lost everything at first glance, he lost his beauty, his status in heaven and he was no longer god's favourite creation and yet we still see this side that it's better to rule in hell than live in heaven under his authority, the war in heaven was lost but Lucifer still achieved his goals.
Lucifer in the Popular Culture :
Although it's very common to look at Satan as pure evil, Lucifer on the other hand provides us with a more relatable and interesting character, we see that today often in modern fiction. He's by no means a beacon of light or even a hero but there's a strange fascination with his story.
If we break down the fall of Lucifer, most of it does stem from curiosity, wanting to question the state of the universe and not simply accept the rules that have been laid down before him by someone else. If you follow the biblical scriptures then Lucifer's Pride is the sin that leads to evil and his downfall however if you approach the story in a less biblical fashion as Milton does in paradise lost, it's essentially Lucifer asking a series of questions about the world he lives in and deciding the world he lives in shouldn't be governed by someone else that he doesn't believes represents him or the other Angels.
You could argue that's because the motives behind these stories are not the same, the biblical stories are warnings for those who wish to challenge the word of God for their own gain, demonizing those who do whereas Milton's work is an invitation to challenge a tyrannical rule or status quo, if it doesn't represent you or the people around you.
Lucifer is certainly an interesting figure whether you believe you understand the reason behind his actions or he's simply the devil. Works like paradise lost or even the recent TV show at least ask the question, is he really that evil? The answer lies within you.
Thank you for reading.