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The Seven Deadly Sins Plus One More

Updated on December 15, 2016
Colleen Swan profile image

Colleen is a psychotherapist retired from private practice, specializing in human relationships.

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The Joys of Being a Sin Eater

How does one eat the sins of another, and what could motivate anyone to wish to do so? In fact, during medieval times, it was believed, in some European countries, if someone hired as a sin eater gormandized to the utmost during the banquet following the funeral of an aristocrat, this swallowing and digesting would relieve the deceased of any consequences of earthly misdeeds, in the hereafter. During those times when only the wealthy had adequate food, this job proved a privilege. Even today, if such a vacancy were to arise, it would almost certainly draw an abundance of applicants.

The Significance of Numbers and the Choice of Seven

Some numbers, such as 3, 7 and 10, have significance throughout the Christian Bible and other mystical frameworks, such as numerology. (Even today, people tend to assume the statute of limitations is 7 years, when in fact it might vary in terms of a host of facts and circumstances) Thus, it is not surprising for 7 to have been chosen as the number of sins deemed so profound as to have been designated “deadly”. They are “deadly” in that anyone having committed one or more of them will, in religious terms, require the deepest penitence in order to obtain God’s forgiveness and a peaceful after-life.

According to the Christian lexicon, these sins are: pride, greed, lust, envy, gluttony, wrath, and sloth. Their order does not seem linked to their perceived degree of malevolence, or their resulting length of punishment in the hereafter. Instead, then as now, acronyms, a convenient combination of initials underlay this hierarchy: the Latin word “saligia” encompassing all of them: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, and acedia. In this article, we will be adding an eighth deadly sin.

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The Existence and Impact of Conscience

Before discussing each of these sins, it is worthwhile to consider whether the capacity for conscience is a part of the human condition.

A dog, having chewed up its owner’s newspaper or pair of bedroom slippers, hearing that owner’s key in the lock, is likely to cower. This is doubtless due to awareness, based on previous misdeeds, that his owner may be angry enough to punish him in some way. While doubtless regretting its action, the dog almost certainly does so in fear of his penalty, based upon memories, rather than any guilt as to having done something destructive and disappointing to someone who provides it with unending care, comfort and affection.

Renowned researcher and psychologist Jesse Bering maintains, on the basis of his own inner childhood strife, bolstered by a wide range of experiments that each human being is born with a conscience which transcends fear of punishment.

Guilt can haunt us when we have done something wrong in that it proves distressing or unjust to another, even when we know we will never be caught and forced to accept the consequences of our actions. Echoes of guilt can pierce and destroy our sense of escape from ourselves, or what religion denotes our souls; our reflections can become our most merciless judges.

Prideful
Prideful | Source

The Deadly Sin of Pride

Awareness of our strengths, skills and abilities is essential to our emotional health. Without this bulwark, we could all too quickly succumb to despondency due to the slights, injustices and disappointments interwoven into our day-to-day lives. It is when this awareness turns to disdain towards those we regard as inferiors that the menace begins. Aside from the cruelty of treating such people with scorn, the prideful lose their perspective as to their place in the global framework.

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Detriment of Arrogance

An overestimated sense of our knowledge can cause grave problems for others. This risk can engulf anyone who seeks assistance from a professional of any kind. Still, at the penultimate edge, is a surgeon who perceives himself as beyond the need for any input from colleagues. His deepest insecurity might lurk in his fear that a request for advice might jeopardize his hard-won reputation for infallibility. Still, it is the patient whose life becomes endangered or ended.

Self-Worth and Egomania

Psychotherapy, for the most part, is meant to enhance self-esteem. Indeed, many of those who consult therapists do so as a consequence of a sense of being inferior to those to whom they compare themselves. While this stumbling-block needs to be overcome, there must be boundaries.

One therapist often provides her/his clients with affirmations in the form of statements regarding a positive self-image, along with the belief in upcoming achievements and goals. Repeated often enough, these statements are believed to create new pathways within the brain structure. Still, when sensing this self-worth evolving towards egomania, this therapist suggests the client is ready to halt the exercise.

Greed and Avarice
Greed and Avarice | Source

The Deadly Sin of Greed

Greed constitutes the desire to own more than one is ever likely to need, primarily for the joy of ownership, often in hopes of instilling frustration in others. The insatiability of this vice allows it to swallow those things owned or deserved by others. While generally associated with material gain, there are also those dubbed psychological vampires, in that they expect constant emotional uplifts from those around them, while refusing to give encouragement in return. Still, for our purposes here, we will stay with the dangers of craving financial eminence.

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The Myth of King Midas

Greek mythology tells of a King Midas who was promised by the Greek god Dionysus that his deepest wish would be gratified. When Midas chose anything he touched would be transformed into gold, he failed to realize its ramifications.

Having ordered a banquet to be prepared to commemorate his good fortune, Midas soon found everything he attempted to eat or drink hardened into gold. Forced to see that this “wealth” would end in his death through starvation, he pleaded with Dionysus to revoke this imagined blessing. Instructed to bath in the river Pactolus this golden curse was removed.

Midas turns his daughter into gold
Midas turns his daughter into gold | Source

Forfeiture of Love for Money

In some versions of this myth, Midas had a daughter Zoe. In the 1851 A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys by Nathaniel Hawthorne, he elaborated on this to encompass Midas’ kissing his daughter’s cheek, resulting in her solidifying into a golden statue.

The philosophy underlying this tale resonates throughout history. Some of those on the wealthy echelons are still subjugated by its power. There are parents, even today, who have ordered a son or daughter to marry a member of a wealthy family, or risk being disinherited.

It is far too idealistic to expect money will ever cease to be part of many of life’s equations.

Lust and Desire
Lust and Desire | Source

The Deadly Sin of Lust

Lust consists of an intense, sometimes obsessive urge for a physical relationship with another person. This desire can be random, or become fixated upon one individual. It was probably included among the gravest transgressions in that religion discouraged any excess. In addition, if this desire led to seduction or rape, it would almost certainly bring about societal and legal conflicts. Historically, as with most perceived vices, lust was viewed as more acceptable in men than in women. To some degree, this view remains prevalent.

Women do differ from men in that they tend to seek a deeper degree of personal connection. This explains why far fewer women are willing to pay for intimate contact than are their male counterparts. Even after their self-proclaimed release from male dominance, many a woman has felt the need to feign reluctance /resistance, to a level where she deems it safe to allow herself to be persuaded.

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Disillusionment in “Gone With The Wind”

Nearly throughout the thousand pages of Margaret Mitchell’s American Civil War novel, Scarlett O'Hara pursues the elusive Ashley Wilkes, despite his enduring union with his wife, Melanie. Hence, Scarlett guards her heart against tenderness from any other man, based on her conviction that she, rather than Melanie, has Ashley’s love. It is only upon seeing his overpowering anguish at his wife’s death that Scarlett is forced to see his complete devotion to Melanie. In a moment of painful enlightenment, she is forced to see that Ashley’s feelings for her have been entirely carnal.

Envy and Jealousy
Envy and Jealousy | Source

The Deadly Sin of Envy

As human beings, we cannot help wishing at times, to have some of those luxuries, skills and abilities possessed by others. This wish is healthy, as long as it does not result in admiration becoming transformed into venom, fomenting inner rage and resentment-the desire to spoil or destroy what we know or feel sure we can never obtain.

In the painting above by Haynes King, we can feel the envy and sadness of the girl by the window.

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A Robin Compared to a Skylark

My audition for my university’s choral group, along with a friend, contrasted the ordinary with the unique, to my definite disadvantage. On tryout night, I told my friend, “Lark”, I would not be auditioning. Still, her disappointment and plea for support were such as to persuade me to do so. Asked by the director to try out first, I did an adequate enough job to be consigned to the chorus with most of the others.

Then, it was Lark’s turn. Like nearly everyone who heard her voice, the director was stirred by its absolute beauty, offering her two upcoming solos. For my part, I sat down, feeling glum, and yes, envious. Still, I experienced no urge, then or later, to sabotage her success, even if I had known of some means of so-doing.

A Mother Turns Jealousy into Toxic Action

Conversely, one of my sons “Leon” was eager to join the British Royal Air Force (RAF). He passed every screening and interview with top-notch scores. Meanwhile, a friend of his, having applied, had not met their criteria. At some point, officials contacted Leon, based on the fact that the postal address of someone they had rejected was the same as one which contained a damning description of Leon.

Later, it was confirmed that the mother of the young man who had not been accepted had gained access to a reference form and written a series of lies about Leon. Having been brought up to treat others with integrity, Leon kept asking me why someone would do something not only cruel but completely pointless. My only honest response was that envy can sometimes be so corrosive as to erode and even erase any sense of good-will and fairness.

Gluttony
Gluttony | Source

The Deadly Sin of Gluttony

Gluttony is the consumption of food, far beyond nutritional needs and the quelling of hunger. Still, during those centuries when adequate food was rare, corpulence was respected as an indication of affluence. Indeed, to read the menu of a princely feast can tend to leave readers in our time mildly nauseous. As Anthony Burgess writes in his life of Shakespeare, this high-fat, low-fiber diet urges us to make and enjoy an immediate salad.

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Glorified: The Full Bodied Woman

Renowned Flemish portrait painter Peter Paul Rubens, (1557-1640) was hired by several courts to paint pictures including those of ladies many of which were naked. His tendency was to paint women in the form of being physically/femininely well-built. These might be considered as overweight by modern standards, but his art forms of woman are glorified and have generated the terms “Rubensian” or “Rubenesque” as a polite means of describing full-bodied women.

Twiggy and Marilyn Monroe compared
Twiggy and Marilyn Monroe compared | Source

The Shift in Perceptiveness of Body Image

During the 1950s, when the need for diet and exercise became widely discussed, glamour goddesses were expected to be voluptuous. As food became plentiful, the image of the ideal woman metamorphosed. This evolution occurred with surprising speed; we need only contrast photos of early 1950s screen goddess Marilyn Monroe with those of the late 1960s super model “Twiggy” to perceive the transformation of values.

Currently, as Caitlin Moran writes in her memoir, the most hurtful insult, from school playground to public press is to be called or implied to be fat. Even if one is thin at the time, the fear arises: does this name-caller sense some likelihood of impending obesity? Such a thought is horrific enough to result in eating disorders.

Wrath and Anger
Wrath and Anger | Source

The Deadly Sin of Wrath

Wrath is a state of rage which can prove overpowering, both to the person consumed by its force, and its unlucky recipient. For this reason, some people find it prudent to wait until they feel calmer before allowing themselves to say things which may shame them later, and cause irreparable harm to a person or relationship.

Unacknowledged wrath can take subtle forms. One man I knew years ago was prone to say demeaning things to others, justifying such comments as observations rather than insults. Once, confronted by someone he had offended, he replied in a tone of bemusement, “Yes, I do find a number of my remarks have upset several people.” He truly seemed puzzled.

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Controlling Anger can be a Positive Parenting Tool

Wrath was probably included within the original deadly sins in that, like lust it can lead to violence and other damaging consequences. Interestingly it tends to be most often used in terms of “the wrath of god”. Parents, in their roles of encouraging worthwhile values in children, sometimes use this power as a kind of weapon.

Quiet reprimands are often far more effective. A Father, who saw his young son steal and eat an Easter egg from a shop, walked him back to the security desk, where the guard gave the boy a telling-off. The Father said nothing more on the subject; aware so-doing would be an act of needless browbeating.

Idle Woman, painting by Daniel Hernández Morillo
Idle Woman, painting by Daniel Hernández Morillo | Source

The Deadly Sin of Sloth

Though sloth is now largely defined as physical laziness, it was not always seen in this way. In its earliest terms, sloth was viewed as a detachment from fellow beings, caused and combined with a Hades of sorrow. It was only when Christianity became a major influence that it became regarded as one of the most significant sins. Its despairing element was seen as a source of potential idleness and eventual suicide.

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Lack of Self-Discipline Can Lead to Failure

Sloth is unique among the above-mentioned sins as it is often more evident to those around us than it is to ourselves. The high school or college student who views popularity and involvement in school activities as more essential than studying, may convince himself of the validity of this falsehood.

Once at college, freed from parental control, even an academically gifted student, annoyed by his alarm clock signaling an 8 a.m. class, may silence its warning, then pull up a quilt and turn over a pillow, to enjoy an extra hour of sleep.

Next time, sleep becomes easier, until it grows habitual. Then, having missed a large number of class sessions, the student decides that, bound to fail; there is no point in attending. Thus, having earned one failing grade, he may allow himself to accept a second, and perhaps a third. Eventually, he learns these failures, reflected on his grade report, will thwart or negate his acceptance into programs leading to a respected profession.

When the devil finds a slothful person empty and void of good works, he sends the other deadly sins to dwell within him.

— Medieval tract

The Positive Effects of Inertia

Inertia is associated with lethargy and a lack of ambition. Still, it has a more positive side. Once we have begun an activity, inertia can impel us to continue. Hence, to those who claim they cannot move forward due to lack of motivation, a growing number of psychotherapists prompt them to begin a worthwhile activity, whether or not they feel ready. This is meant to surmount the quicksand of depression: “I am not motivated, so I won’t try, and since I have not tried, I cannot feel motivated.” The beginning of an activity often creates the urge to do more, thereby defeating the detrimental effects of increasing despondency.

Hypocrite
Hypocrite | Source

The Eighth Deadly Sin of Hypocrisy

We interpret hypocrisy as the eighth deadly sin in its modern day form and not necessarily the literal meaning of pretended sanctity from the Latin (hypocrisis)

Hypocrisy occurs when someone claims to have principles which are contradicted by his behavior. An example is an employer who, while criticizing others for bigotry, finds pretexts for failing to hire qualified applicants, though his true basis is racial.

One of the primary taints of hypocrisy lies in its allowing people to conceal prejudice and other cruelties behind acceptable rhetoric. If practiced on a large plane, this can tend to result in an over-all sense of rejection by those who have already been hurt by this type of bias. If experienced too often, this can breed crime borne of a sense of the hopelessness of genuine effort.

Conversely, a father who, though a smoker himself, pleads with his college age offspring not to take up the habit does not deserve to be viewed as a hypocrite. This father may have become drawn to nicotine at an age when he felt infinite and invincible. Since then, he could have tried numerous times to free himself from its hold, but has not yet found the strength and self-discipline within himself to resist its enticement.

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A Despicable Illustration of Hypocritical Behavior

The Ariel Castro Kidnappings

In 2002, Michelle Knight agreed to accept a ride home from Ariel Castro, the father of a friend. When she asked why he was turning his car in a strange direction, he said they should stop at his home to allow her to choose a puppy from a newly-born litter. As he had interwoven this choice into their conversation, she dismissed her inner alarm by believing that, even if he posed a menace, he would never harm one of his daughter’s friends. In fact, her entry into his house led to 11 years of captivity, regular beatings, rapes, and perhaps most agonizing of all, incessant taunts that no member of her family would make the slightest effort to find her.

A Partial End to Her Agony

In time, two other girls were abducted by the use of similar ruses. Gina, one of Michelle’s fellow victims, literally kept her alive after “the dude’s" maltreatment had all but killed her. Eventually, when his favorite victim, Amanda, gave birth to his child, he did start to develop paternal affection. Believing God should be part of his daughter’s life, he took her to a local church every Sunday. Assuming the guise of a Christian, “the dude” had often raped Michelle a mere few hours before. As she points out, it would be difficult to envision a deeper type of hypocrisy.

This Video Discusses With Humorous Flair:

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© 2015 Colleen Swan

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    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hi Suhail, I am happy you found this hub via a share. Yes, hypocrisy seems to be rife these days especially in politics. Thank you for your kind words. Colleen

    • Suhail and my dog profile image

      Suhail Zubaid aka Clark Kent 2 years ago from Mississauga, ON

      Hi Colleen,

      I was on this hub thanks to the share by Stella (ladyguitarpicker).

      This is a wow hub for sure! Well researched and beautifully written.

      Btw, Hypocrisy as the 8th sin stole the show.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hi Stella, I am so happy you enjoyed the article and share my view on hypocrisy. A degree of diplomacy is needed to navigate through this world, but to claim a belief while acting out its opposite is definitely evil.

    • ladyguitarpicker profile image

      stella vadakin 2 years ago from 3460NW 50 St Bell, Fl32619

      Hi Colleen, A really good article and I like the addition of hypocrisy. This is a sin that we hear everyday, it is over and over again. Great hub, Stella Voted up and sharing.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Thank you Chuck for looking in. Glad you enjoyed the article. We have similar interests that we enjoy writing about, and I am happy to follow.

    • Chuck Dawson profile image

      Brandon Graham 2 years ago from Missoula, Montana

      Really well done article. I'm new around Hubpages so you'll be the second person I'm following. :)

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hi Chris, Yes, hypocrisy is interwoven into all of our daily lives. It is almost impossible to avoid at times, especially in social situations. Much thanks for an insightful and thorough reading.

    • Thomas Swan profile image

      Thomas Swan 2 years ago from New Zealand

      Hypocrisy is a good choice for an eighth sin. I agree that a father who smokes and tells his son not to is an exception. People change over time, but the sins of the past make their mark on the present, creating grey areas in what can be classed as hypocritical. If someone stole a toy as a child, then gave a lecture on why theft is wrong as an adult, they're probably not a hypocrite. If the time frame were smaller... say a couple of years, what might be said of their hypocrisy then? I suppose hypocrisy may be clearer when actions proceed words, but time still blurs the lines.

    • nathalia27 profile image

      Nancy 2 years ago

      All sins are deadly. Thus, it is not only seven. On the hand, you elaborate it well in your post.

    • Chriswillman90 profile image

      Krzysztof Willman 2 years ago from Parlin, New Jersey

      A great collection of sins transcending past, present, and future. I enjoyed how each sin was held to a high standard backed up with facts and examples. The last addition is something I never thought about, but it's striking how much of an effect it has in our lives today. You can't go a day without witnessing hypocrisy somewhere.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Thank you Pollyanna, I agree the sins of society are judged by us and not religious dic-tac. We can become the sinner before we understand that we have sinned; yes excess can overreach us. I am happy that you agree hypocrisy is a suitable addition.

    • Pollyanna Jones profile image

      Pollyanna Jones 2 years ago from United Kingdom

      A very thoughtful and well written read. I think that these "sins" are not just limited to those who are religious, but in excess are behaviours that are harmful to the self or society as a whole. Hypocrisy is a fantastic addition to this list.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hi MsDora, It is for people with insights like yours which impel my articles. If I feel a bit disheartened at times, it is the thought of readers like you who re-ignite my energies. Thank you MsDora.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hi Cmoneyspinner, you're so right that as protective as we try to be of those in our care, our abilities are limited. We can only hope the protection we give will prevent major harm. I agree with you that hypocrisy is one of the most horrible sins. Unfortunately, it seems to be on the rise; honesty is out of fashion.

    • MsDora profile image

      Dora Isaac Weithers 2 years ago from The Caribbean

      Colleen, a great presentation from biblical, historical, as well as scientific sources. I can also understand hypocrisy as a deadly sin. Thanks for a very effective lesson.

    • cmoneyspinner1tf profile image

      Treathyl FOX 2 years ago from Austin, Texas

      You bend over backwards to try to protect your children and still that doesn't mean nothing horrible will happen and sometimes it does. Was not familiar with that story of Ariel Castro. Hypocrisy is a sin that has a "Woe!" attached to it. Very thought provoking article.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hi DDE, I am so happy that you find the presentation appealing. It takes time, but I do like to think it enhances the enjoyment of the article.

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 2 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Your lay out on this hub is perfect and well-informed.

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      DJ Anderson 2 years ago

      What a shame to hear of Castro's suicide, I probably knew it but forgot about it. I too, think it would have been perfect to know that he would be forced to horrid physical abuse like those which he had committed on the three women. It does seem like the proper retribution for such an evil man.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
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      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Hello DJ, I continue to be amazed at the time you spend on reading my articles. You also understand so perfectly everything I am trying to say. For what it's worth Ariel Castro committed suicide by hanging, a month after he began his lifelong sentence. Michelle Knight was disappointed in that she hoped he would be forced to face some of the fear and misery he had perpetrated on herself and her two fellow victims.

    • profile image

      DJ Anderson 2 years ago

      Hello, Colleen,

      Admittedly, I had to go back in years as 'The Sin Eater' reminded me of

      something I had seen on TV, when I was a young adult. After a little research, I found it was on a weekly TV show called Night Gallery. One of the shows was called "The Sins of the Father". It starred Richard Thomas and was played so perfectly that I wished I had never watched it.

      You have covered your material with a thoroughness I have come to expect. I feel that the seven sins named, in reality are sins against ourselves. For we are the ones who suffer the indignation when being accused of these sins.

      In the case of your son or the Castro kidnappings, there was a steep fallout onto innocent people. In the end, the mother who wrote bad

      things and sent it into the RAF must have been mortified to have been found out. And, Mr. Castro will spend the remainder of his living days

      behind bars.

      I did so enjoy your quotes. All were spot on, but I do believe my favorite

      was Shakespeare and Milton.

      Isn't it interesting that lying or deceitfulness is not one of the deadly

      sins? I suppose hypocrisy could be considered deceit, but deceit is not necessarily hypocrisy.

      This is another insightful article.

      Bravo!, my friend.

      DJ.

    • Colleen Swan profile image
      Author

      Colleen Swan 2 years ago from County Durham

      Thank you Buildreps for your kind words. I spent some time finding poignant quotes and am pleased that these have uplifted the reading. Hypocrisy seems to becoming the politically correct way of pointing to dishonesty.

    • Buildreps profile image

      Buildreps 2 years ago from Europe

      A beautiful and well crafted article! Beautiful quotes. I agree that hypocrisy could be considered as the eighth sin.