- Religion and Philosophy
Bible study on the Trinity
Regardless of what different beliefs Jews have, there is one prayer which always unites them together as one people - the Shema. "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord, the Lord our God is one." In the same way, we will examine how the Scriptures reveals how God can be three and yet one in essence. In this study, we will also explore how God the Father and Son interact with his people.
The Trinity in the Old Testament
In Genesis 1:26-27, we find the first plural reference for God as he said Let us make man in our image, after our own likeness..."
In ancient polytheistic religions, each god had a higher or lesser status based on their skills, needs, and desires. Each god controlled some aspect of nature, but no single god had total and absolute control over the cosmos itself, except the true God of Israel: Elohim. Interestingly, it would seem that he is singularly one, but the plural word used is Gods, not one God. In Hebrew, the verb identifies the gender and number of the subject. The nun נ identifies the verb make as plural, therefore God is also plural. El which is a singular form of a god isn't written, neither is the singular form of Elohim which is Eloah, defined as one God, we find Elohim, the plural form to describe the God revealed to all of humanity, however, this portion of Scripture is silent on who makes up the compound unity of God.
From Gen. 3:22, we see there are persons in the plurality of God. They all have knowledge of good and evil.
The 2nd plural reference of God appears in chapter 3. Hebrew has 2 different words for one: Yachid (numerical and singular oneness) and Echad referring to a compound unity. Some interpret the word Echad to also be used in a singular sense, but is this statement true?
Genesis 11:7 "Come, let Us go down there and confuse their language so that they will not understand one another's speech."
The Hebrew word for "go down" is yarad, but the Hebrew prefix nun identifies the subject as plural. Again, we see the plurality of God being revealed towards humankind.
Deuteronomy 6:4 "Listen, Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is One."
Listening in the Hebraic meant more than just to pay attention, it meant acting based on your understanding of a command or concept. In the polytheism of the ancient world, the gods had little regard for righteousness, but to fulfill their own selfish desires. YHWH, the God of Israel was however concerned with making a special covenant with his people and instructing them in righteousness. Israel was to serve and worship one God in faithfulness. This was the most important commandment in the Torah, but within the Hebrew text, we don't find the word Yachid, an absolutely singular word, but the word translated for one is "Echad" which is the word used for a compound unity.
The following passages will reveal the plurality of God in the Scriptures. According to "the Treasury of David: Containing an original exposition of the Book of Psalms", Simon de Muis has written that the Hebrew reads "makers" rather than one maker.
"Let Israel rejoice in their Makers."
According to the Prophetic Telegraph written by Arthur Eedle, the original reads makers.
" "Where is God my Makers"
According to Albert Barnes' notes on the whole Bible, he says the original Hebrew for "maker" is plural.
"For your husband is your makers"
In most English translations of the Bible, Ecclesiastes 12 is translated as "Creator", but in Hebrew, the word "creator" is plural and is rendered "Creators."
Ecclesiastes 12:1 according to Young's literal translation reads as follows:
1 "Remember also thy Creators in days of thy youth, While that the evil days come not, Nor the years have arrived, that thou sayest, `I have no pleasure in them.'"
The term "Son of God" in the Old Testament was originally a Jewish concept contrary to what critics claim. The Dead Sea Scroll fragment 4Q246 reads:
"He shall be called the Son of the God; they will call him the Son of the Most High...He will judge the earth in righteousness...and every nation will bow down to him...with (God's) help he will make war, and...[God] will give all the peoples into his power."
A "Son of God" in the Near East was a co-regent king chosen by a patron God. He was held accountable for all his actions and as long he was obedient to the God, that God would grant him blessings and defeat all of his enemies.
1 The words of Agur the son of Jakeh, his utterance. This man declared to Ithiel—to Ithiel and Ucal:
2 Surely I am more stupid than any man,
And do not have the understanding of a man.
3 I neither learned wisdom
Nor have knowledge of the Holy One.
4 Who has ascended into heaven, or descended?
Who has gathered the wind in His fists?
Who has bound the waters in a garment?
Who has established all the ends of the earth?
What is His name, and what is His Son’s name,
If you know?
Looking at the Israelite kings records, Agur does not appear. What we can infer is that Agur was a wise man such as Job who realized that life was not as it should be. He humbly acknowledges that he is not knowledgeable of spiritual matters. He admits that he as a human being is completely ignorant of God and his ways. He understands that he knows nothing except through divine revelation. He then asks a set of rhetorical questions. He understands that no man can truly enter heaven, since it is God's realm, but he also asks "What is his name, and what is his Son's name?" The ancients preferred parallelism, repetition of ideas. From the text, we can observe that it is God who had gathered the wind, bound the waters, established all the ends of the earth, and his name represents his character to the ancient mind. However, Agur seems to understand that God has a son beside him.
God the father
In the Old Testament, God himself was seen as a father to his people.
" 1“When Israel was a child, I loved him,
And out of Egypt I called My son."
"Then you will say to Pharaoh: This is what Yahweh says: Israel is My firstborn son."
"Yet You are our Father, even though Abraham does not know us and Israel doesn't recognize us. You, Yahweh, are our Father; from ancient times, Your name is our Redeemer."
It is clear that God the Father, son, and Holy Ghost are all distinct entities in the Old Testament not just in the New. If they all had a working relationship as one being, wouldn't it be reasonable to take the time in understanding God as he truly is?
God the Holy Spirit
Nehemiah 9:20 "You sent Your good Spirit to instruct them. You did not withhold Your manna from their mouths, and You gave them water for their thirst."
God's Spirit is clearly a person, not simply a force. See also these verses: Nehemiah 9:30, Psalm and 143:10.
Plural of majesty
Some argue that the Trinity is not in the Bible, but that the plurality of God is a plural of majesty or the royal "we." The plural of majesty however is never used in the Bible. Rabbi Tzvi Nassi, a Hebrew grammarian writes this
"Every one who is acquainted with the rudiments of the Hebrew and Chaldee languages, must know that God, in the holy Writings, very often spoke of Himself in the plural. The passages are numerous, in which, instead of a grammatical agreement between the subject and predicate, we meet with a construction, which some modern grammarians, who possess more of the so-called philosophical than of the real knowledge of the Oriental languages, call a pluralis excellentiae. This helps them out of every apparent difficulty. Such a pluralis excellentiae was however a thing unknown to Moses and the prophets. Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, David, and all the other kings, throughout TeNaKh (the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa) speak in the singular, and not as modern kings in the plural. They do not say we, but I, command; as in Gen. xli. 41; Dan. iii. 29; Ezra i. 2, etc."
"This first person plural can hardly be a mere editorial or royal plural that refers to the speaker alone, for no such usage is demonstrable anywhere else in Biblical Hebrew.Therefore, we must face the question of who are included in this "us" and "our." It could hardly include the angels in consultation with God, for nowhere is it ever stated that man was created in the image of angels, only of God. Verse 27 then affirms: "and God [Elohim] created man in His own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female He created them" (NASB). God--the same God who spoke of Himself in the plural--now states that He created man in His image. In other words, the plural equals the singular. This can only be understood in terms of the Trinitarian nature of God. The one true God subsists in three Persons, Persons who are able to confer with one another and carry their plans into action together--without ceasing to be one God."
"The best answer that they [Old Hebrew lexicographers and grammarians] could give was that the plural form used for the name (or title) of God was the 'pluralis majestatis,' that is the plural of majesty...to say nothing of the fact that it is not at all certain that the 'pluralis majestatis' is ever found in the Old Testament, there is an explanation much nearer at hand and much simpler, and that is, that a plural name was used for the one God, in spite of the intense monotheism of the Jews, because there is a plurality of person in the one Godhead."
"Another very popular view in modem times is that God uses the plural, just as kings do, as a mark of dignity (the so-called "plural of majesty"), but it is only late in Jewish history that such a form of speech occurs, and then it is used by Persian and Greek rulers (Esdr. iv. 18; 1 Mace. x. 19). Nor can the plural be regarded as merely indicating the way in which God summons Himself to energy, for the use of the language is against this"
Trinity in Jesus' baptism
Matthew 3:16-17 16 " When He had been baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting upon Him. 17 And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”
In the Jewish world of the New Testament, immersion in water was done to ensure spiritual sanctification and purification to perform the tasks of the priests and before prayer and other responsibilities. Anointed kings would also be immersed in mivehs before their coronation.
Here, Psalm 2 is applied to Jesus himself. Some argue that this is referring to King David, however a problem arises with this interpretation. David was not promised the earth.
Why do the nations rage,
And the people plot a vain thing?
2 The kings of the earth set themselves,
And the rulers take counsel together,
Against the Lord and against His Anointed, saying,
3 “Let us break Their bonds in pieces
And cast away Their cords from us.”
4 He who sits in the heavens shall laugh;
The Lord shall hold them in derision.
5 Then He shall speak to them in His wrath,
And distress them in His deep displeasure:
6 “Yet I have set My King
On My holy hill of Zion.”
7 “I will declare the decree:
The Lord has said to Me,
‘You are My Son,
Today I have begotten You.
8 Ask of Me, and I will give You
The nations for Your inheritance,
And the ends of the earth for Your possession.
9 You shall break them with a rod of iron;
You shall dash them to pieces like a potter’s vessel.’”
10 Now therefore, be wise, O kings;
Be instructed, you judges of the earth.
11 Serve the Lord with fear,
And rejoice with trembling.
12 Kiss the Son, lest He be angry,
And you perish in the way,
When His wrath is kindled but a little.
Blessed are all those who put their trust in Him."
Ancient kings had often called their subject kings their sons. The King would be the representative of God and would receive blessings and the defeat of all his enemies. The Greek verb tense in Matt. 3:17 is unaffected by time. God was always pleased with his son and always will be. Here, we can see God working as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
"25 At that time Jesus answered and said, “I thank You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that You have hidden these things from the wise and prudent and have revealed them to babes. 26 Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in Your sight. 27 All things have been delivered to Me by My Father, and no one knows the Son except the Father. Nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and the one to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.28 Come to Me, all you who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. 30 For My yoke is easy and My burden is light.”
In verse 27, we can see that there is a relationship between the Father and the Son. The Father knows the Son and the Son, the Father. Jesus, the Son of God manifested himself in human flesh so that humanity may know the Father.
"34 Hearing that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, the Pharisees got together. 35 One of them, an expert in the law, tested him with this question: 36 “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?” 37 Jesus replied: “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ 38 This is the first and greatest commandment."
Jesus quotes the Shema but since God is plural based on the text, Jesus was explaining that humanity would listen, obey, and love the three-fold God.
"41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, 42 saying, “What do you think about the Christ? Whose Son is He?”
They said to Him, “The Son of David.”
43 He said to them, “How then does David in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying:
44 ‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“Sit at My right hand,
Till I make Your enemies Your footstool”’?
45 If David then calls Him ‘Lord,’ how is He his Son?” 46 And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor from that day on did anyone dare question Him anymore."
Jews did not believe that the Messiah would be divine, however this led to their misunderstanding of who Jesus Christ was. A Lord was someone who exercised power and authority over another. David had great respect and recognized that the Messiah had authority over him. Moreover, the Septuagint version of Psalm 110 supports his divinity. It reads as follows:
A Psalm of David.
110:1 " The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
110:2 The Lord shall send out a rod of power for thee out of Sion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
110:3 With thee is dominion in the day of thy power, in the splendours of thy saints: I have begotten thee from the womb before the morning.
110:4 The Lord sware, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec.
110:5 The Lord at thy right hand has dashed in pieces kings in the day of his wrath.
110:6 He shall judge among the nations, he shall fill up [the number of] corpses, he shall crush the heads of many on the earth.
110:7 He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall he lift up the head."
Matthew 28:18-18 18 "And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.."
Jesus Christ was given power over the whole universe. New converts were to be baptized "in the name" or in the presence of several witnesses (Yebam 47b). In this context, the witnesses were the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. We can once again see the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost working as one.
13 “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment than for you. 15 And you, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades." 16 He who hears you hears Me, he who rejects you rejects Me, and he who rejects Me rejects Him who sent Me.”
God the Father sent his Son into the world to save it, therefore anyone who rejects his Son, rejects the Father.
John 1 "The Word"
John 1:1 "1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men."
The Greek word "pros" in this text means "towards, near to, at, present, at the face of." Jesus was in essence a separate person who was near the Father while being God himself. The world was made through Jesus Christ.
14 " And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth."
We beheld the character of the Father through his son Jesus Christ.
"Begotten of the Father"
The following are several texts from John speaking of Jesus "Begotten of the Father."
John 1:14 "14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten [monogenēs] of the Father, full of grace and truth."
V. 18 "18 No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten [monogenēs] Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him."
" 16 For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten [monogenēs] Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life."
In the Scriptures, Adam is called God's son along with other beings, but Jesus is the "begotten son of God." The word "Begotten" in Greek comes from the root "monos" which means "only."
John 3:34 "34 For He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for God does not give the Spirit by measure. 35 The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into His hand. 36 He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; and he who does not believe the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him.”
God the father gives the Holy Spirit without limit and authority to the son. It is through faith in God's son that we are saved or condemned.
Examine the following passages and take careful notice of the relationship between God the Father and God the son. You will see passages clearly indicating the Trinity and God's unique relationship with his people.
John 5:17 "17 But Jesus answered them, “My Father is working until now, and I am working.”
19 "So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, that the Son does likewise. 20 For the Father loves the Son and shows him all that he himself is doing. And greater works than these will he show him, so that you may marvel. 21 For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will. 22 The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, 23 that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. 24 Truly, truly, I say to you,whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life.
25 “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 26 For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. 27 And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. 28 Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice 29 and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment." 30 I can of Myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My own will but the will of the Father who sent Me.
31 “If I bear witness of Myself, My witness is not true. 32 There is another who bears witness of Me, and I know that the witness which He witnesses of Me is true. 33 You have sent to John, and he has borne witness to the truth. 34 Yet I do not receive testimony from man, but I say these things that you may be saved. 35 He was the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing for a time to rejoice in his light. 36 But I have a greater witness than John’s; for the works which the Father has given Me to finish—the very works that I do—bear witness of Me, that the Father has sent Me.37 And the Father Himself, who sent Me, has testified of Me. You have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His form. 38 But you do not have His word abiding in you, because whom He sent, Him you do not believe. 39 You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me. 40 But you are not willing to come to Me that you may have life.
According to the Torah, one witness was not sufficient to establish testimony. Jews did not refer to God as their father as it was too intimate. Jews also believed that God alone raised the dead and did not give that privilege to anyone else. Jews also believed that God alone is the judge of the world. Jesus established the Father as his witness through miracles and signs written in the Old Testament.
Deuteronomy 19:15 "One witness cannot establish any wrongdoing or sin against a person, whatever that person has done. A fact must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses."
Jesus applies this passage to himself and the father, condemning the Pharisees for their unbelief in him.
41 “I do not receive honor from men. 42 But I know you, that you do not have the love of God in you. 43 I have come in My Father’s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive. 44 How can you believe, who receive honor from one another, and do not seek the honor that comes from the only God?45 Do not think that I shall accuse you to the Father; there is one who accuses you—Moses, in whom you trust. 46 For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me. 47 But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?”
Jesus addressed the Pharisees accusations by explaining that he was doing the works of his heavenly father (works of love and healing). He established his righteous judgement with the father as his witness.
2 "On the following day, when the people who were standing on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat there, except that one which His disciples had entered, and that Jesus had not entered the boat with His disciples, but His disciples had gone away alone— 23 however, other boats came from Tiberias, near the place where they ate bread after the Lord had given thanks— 24 when the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, nor His disciples, they also got into boats and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus. 25 And when they found Him on the other side of the sea, they said to Him, “Rabbi, when did You come here?" 26 Jesus answered them and said, “Most assuredly, I say to you, you seek Me, not because you saw the signs, but because you ate of the loaves and were filled. 27 Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to everlasting life, which the Son of Man will give you, because God the Father has set His seal on Him.”
Seals in ancient times allowed for identification of an owner. Jesus was explaining that the Father gave him his approval to give eternal life to mankind.
28 "Then they said to Him, “What shall we do, that we may work the works of God?” 29 "Jesus answered and said to them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in Him whom He sent.”
30 Therefore they said to Him, “What sign will You perform then, that we may see it and believe You? What work will You do? 31 Our fathers ate the manna in the desert; as it is written, ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’" 32 Then Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, Moses did not give you the bread from heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven. 33 For the bread of God is He who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.”
34 Then they said to Him, “Lord, give us this bread always.”
35 And Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he who believes in Me shall never thirst. 36 But I said to you that you have seen Me and yet do not believe. 37 All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out. 38 For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me. 39 This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given (Helko) Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. 40 And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”
"Helko" is a Greek word figuratively meaning "to attract." Jesus in essence attracts those whom the Father gives to him.
41 The Jews then complained about Him, because He said, “I am the bread which came down from heaven.” 42 And they said, “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, ‘I have come down from heaven’?”
43 Jesus therefore answered and said to them, “Do not murmur among yourselves.44 No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day. 45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they shall all be taught by God.’ Therefore everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to Me. 46 Not that anyone has seen the Father, except He who is from God; He has seen the Father. 47 Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me has everlasting life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and are dead. 50 This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that one may eat of it and not die. 51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world.”
52 The Jews therefore quarreled among themselves, saying, “How can this Man give us His flesh to eat?”
53 Then Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you. 54 Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 55 For My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. 56 He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him. 57 As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who feeds on Me will live because of Me. 58 This is the bread which came down from heaven—not as your fathers ate the manna, and are dead. He who eats this bread will live forever.”
60 Therefore many of His disciples, when they heard this, said, “This is a hard saying; who can understand it?”
61 When Jesus knew in Himself that His disciples complained about this, He said to them, “Does this offend you? 62 What then if you should see the Son of Man ascend where He was before? 63 It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and they are life. 64 But there are some of you who do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who would betray Him. 65 And He said, “Therefore I have said to you that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted to him by My Father.”
In essence, no one can come to Jesus unless the Father draws or attracts him. In this passage, we see a co-operative effort to save those who want to be saved from their sins.
17 "If anyone wills to do His will, he shall know concerning the doctrine, whether it is from God or whether I speak on My own authority. 18 He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory; but He who seeks the glory of the One who sent Him is true, and no unrighteousness is in Him."
Jesus' validation came from the Father rather than in himself.
14 "Jesus answered and said to them, “Even if I bear witness of Myself, My witness is true, for I know where I came from and where I am going; but you do not know where I come from and where I am going. 15 You judge according to the flesh; I judge no one.16 And yet if I do judge, My judgment is true; for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent Me. 17 It is also written in your law that the testimony of two men is true. 18 I am One who bears witness of Myself, and the Father who sent Me bears witness of Me.”
19 Then they said to Him, “Where is Your Father?”
Jesus answered, “You know neither Me nor My Father. If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also.”
25 Then they said to Him, “Who are You?”
And Jesus said to them, “Just what I have been saying to you from the beginning. 26 I have many things to say and to judge concerning you, but He who sent Me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I heard from Him.”
27 They did not understand that He spoke to them of the Father.
28 Then Jesus said to them, “When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and that I do nothing of Myself; but as My Father taught Me, I speak these things. 29 And He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I always do those things that please Him.” 30 As He spoke these words, many believed in Him.
38 I speak what I have seen with My Father, and you do what you have seen with your father.” 42 Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and came from God; nor have I come of Myself, but He sent Me.
49 Jesus answered, “I do not have a demon; but I honor My Father, and you dishonor Me. 50 And I do not seek My own glory; there is One who seeks and judges. 54 Jesus answered, “If I honor Myself, My honor is nothing. It is My Father who honors Me, of whom you say that He is your God. 55 Yet you have not known Him, but I know Him. And if I say, ‘I do not know Him,’ I shall be a liar like you; but I do know Him and keep His word. 58 Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.”
As we have already seen, God's judgment is linked closely with his son Jesus Christ.
15 As the Father knows Me, even so I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep. 17 “Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again.18 No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father.”
25 Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in My Father’s name, they bear witness of Me. 26 But you do not believe, because you are not of My sheep, as I said to you. 27 My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. 28 And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand. 29 My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father’s hand. 30 I and My Father are one [heis].”
It's important to note that the Greek word "heis" is in the neuter gender, implying that Jesus and the Father are one in essence and will while being two different entities. Because of the Father and Jesus Christ, no one can take away salvation from a soul.
31 "Then the Jews took up stones again to stone Him. 32 Jesus answered them, “Many good works I have shown you from My Father. For which of those works do you stone Me?” 34 Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your law, ‘I said, “You are gods”’? 35 If He called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken), 36 do you say of Him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’? 37 If I do not do the works of My Father, do not believe Me; 38 but if I do, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in Him.”
41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. And Jesus lifted up His eyes and said, “Father, I thank You that You have heard Me. 42 And I know that You always hear Me, but because of the people who are standing by I said this, that they may believe that You sent Me.”
Here we see the close relationship between the Father and Jesus Christ for the people watching him.
26 If anyone serves Me, let him follow Me; and where I am, there My servant will be also. If anyone serves Me, him My Father will honor. 27 “Now My soul is troubled, and what shall I say? ‘Father, save Me from this hour’? But for this purpose I came to this hour. 28 Father, glorify Your name.” Then a voice came from heaven, saying, “I have both glorified it and will glorify it again.” 44 Then Jesus cried out and said, “He who believes in Me, believes not in Me but in Him who sent Me. 45 And he who sees Me sees Him who sent Me. 46 I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in Me should not abide in darkness. 47 And if anyone hears My words and does not believe, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world. 48 He who rejects Me, and does not receive My words, has that which judges him—the word that I have spoken will judge him in the last day. 49 For I have not spoken on My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command, what I should say and what I should speak. 50 And I know that His command is everlasting life. Therefore, whatever I speak, just as the Father has told Me, so I speak.”
Jesus glorified the Father's name through his obedient life and would glorify it again in his death followed by his resurrection.
“Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also in Me. 2 In My Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. 3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also. 4 And where I go you know, and the way you know.”
5 Thomas said to Him, “Lord, we do not know where You are going, and how can we know the way?”
6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.
12 “Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do he will do also; and greater works than these he will do, because I go to My Father. 13 And whatever you ask in My name, that I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.14 If you ask anything in My name, I will do it.
15 “If you love Me, keep My commandments. 16 And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper [Parakletos], that He may abide with you forever— 17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you. 18 I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.
19 “A little while longer and the world will see Me no more, but you will see Me. Because I live, you will live also. 20 At that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you. 21 He who has My commandments and keeps them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and manifest Myself to him.”
22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to Him, “Lord, how is it that You will manifest Yourself to us, and not to the world?”
23 Jesus answered and said to him, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him. 24 He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father’s who sent Me.
25 “These things I have spoken to you while being present with you. 26 But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all things that I said to you. 27 Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. 28 You have heard Me say to you, ‘I am going away and coming back to you.’ If you loved Me, you would rejoice because I said, ‘I am going to the Father,’ for My Father is greater than I.
29 “And now I have told you before it comes, that when it does come to pass, you may believe. 30 I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming, and he has nothing in Me. 31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave Me commandment, so I do. Arise, let us go from here."
The word "Parakletos" in Greek means "one who is close beside" and in Greek culture, refers to a legal helper or friend who would aid you in court when your in trouble. Jesus was teaching that when his followers err in keeping his commandments, the Holy Spirit would help us in our defense when he prays to the Father.
By studying the relationship between the Father to the son and the son's relationship to God's people, we see the Trinity's true essence. There's a unification among God and man. God the Father, the Son, and Holy Ghost all have their individuality but are one in essence. It is this unique relationship in God that we must look up to and apply in our own lives. When we stand in unity with God and our brethren, we find our identity in Christ. We unlock our uttermost potential as the body of Christ to share who God is through the face of Jesus Christ. I pray that this article will help you gain insight into the character of God and what he wants for his people.