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What are the Portraits of Jesus Christ? (Part 3)
The Portraits of Jesus Christ according to Apostle Paul and Peter
Paul's Portraits of Christ
The Peacemaker. Romans 5:1 "Therefore, since we have been made right in God’s sight by faith, we have peace with God because of what Jesus Christ our Lord has done for us." (NLT)
In Greek, the word pisteuō (G4100), pistis (G4102) means believe, faith. This verb (pisteuō) and the related noun (pistis) refer to confidence that something is real, with a strong implication that action will ensue from this belief. While faith can be rather mundane (e.g., believing a report, 1 Cor. 11:18), in the New Testament it almost always refers to faith in God or Christ. Such faith entails active belief, entrusting oneself completely to God.
Peace with God does not refer to a mere feeling of peacefulness but to a real situation of peace. It is the end of hostilities between God and sinful human beings when they believe in Jesus Christ and the state of blessing and salvation that God promised his people in the end. (Please see Isaiah 9:6-7; 52:7; Ezek 34:25; Nahum 1:15)
The bible says that Abraham was not made right because of his action or what he has done--- he was accounted righteous because of his unwavering faith in God. So, if we trust Jesus Christ completely, we will have ultimate peace with God.
The Lord of Glory. 1Cor 2:8 "None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory." (NIV)
God came on flesh through Christ Jesus, but the world did not understand nor did they believe Him. God tests the hearts of His people... whether they will recognized the same God who freed them from the bondage of Egypt. They did not believe the testimony of Jesus Christ. But God... being the Supreme Power and the King of Kings... once again showed His supremacy and soveriegnty by raising Christ Jesus from the dead. Jesus Christ is the wisdom and power of God, without faith in Him, and without Him in our life, we are nothing.
Paul emphasizes for the Christians not to rest our faith on men's wisdom, but on God's power. As it is written "No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him." (1 Cor 2:9 NIV)
Paul said: "We have not received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we may understand what God has freely given us." God will give us the mind of Christ, God's wisdom and power.
The Only Foundation. 1 Cor 3:11 "Or, to put it another way, you are God's house. Using the gift God gave me as a good architect, I designed blueprints; Apollos is putting up the walls. Let each carpenter who comes on the job take care to build on the foundation! Remember, there is only one foundation, the one already laid: Jesus Christ. Take particular care in picking out your building materials. Eventually there is going to be an inspection. If you use cheap or inferior materials, you'll be found out. The inspection will be thorough and rigorous. You won't get by with a thing. If your work passes inspection, fine; if it doesn't, your part of the building will be torn out and started over. But you won't be torn out; you'll survive—but just barely."
There can never be any other foundation for the church than Jesus Christ himself. Isaiah 28:16 says Therefore, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: “Look! I am placing a foundation stone in Jerusalem, a firm and tested stone. It is a precious cornerstone that is safe to build on.Whoever believes need never be shaken."
We are the living stones that God is building in His spiritual temple. Jesus Christ our one and only mediator is the living cornerstone. If we believe in Jesus...and trust Him completely...we would never be shaken, or disgraced.
The Sacrificial Lamb. Paul said in 1 Cor 5:7 say "Get rid of the old 'yeast' by removing this wicked person from among you. Then you will be like a fresh batch of dough made without yeast, which is what you really are. Christ, our Passover Lamb, has been sacrificed for us." (NLT)
Yeast was often a symbol of sin. Jews ceremonially cleansed their homes of yeast before the annual Passover meal. Paul was saying to the church of Corinth "Get rid of the old yeast" by removing "this wicked person" which really meant: Sin, if unaddressed, could spread throughout the church, just as yeast spreads throughout a batch of dough. The Greek word for leaven is zumē (G2219). This noun refers to a substance used as an agent for fermenting dough, with the associated meaning of a change agent that is subtle and gradual, yet thorough. In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus has warned his disciples and the people to be aware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the Sadducees. Jesus emphasized "leaven" which indicates the permeating nature of the deceptive teaching. Speaking of yeast as a symbol of sin-we should be aware on this because no matter how small or how light we think of our trespasses against God... it will contaminate the whole body. There is no such thing as small or big sin. A sin is a sin. We cannot justify that we only something bad behind a neighbor and therefore it is not a big sin... all the same... we committed a slander or gossip or whatever you call it... which is not from God. Jesus as our Sacrificial Lamb has already been sacrificed for all of our sins... at least we can say to ourselves with all honesty and repentance... "I will get rid of this unwanted person in me!" in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ.
The Conqueror of death, 1 Cor 15:24-26 "After that the end will come, when he will turn the Kingdom over to God the Father, having destroyed every ruler and authority and power. For Christ must reign until he humbles all his enemies beneath his feet. And the last enemy to be destroyed is death." (NLT)
Christ is the Lord of all things, even death itself. Nevertheless, he remains subordinate to God his Father. He will reign (to rule) until all of his enemies (which refers to all who oppose God) under his feet.
• beneath his feet: In the ancient Near East, victorious kings were depicted with their feet on the necks of their defeated enemies.
The Image of God, 2 Cor 4:4 "Satan, who is the god of this world, has blinded the minds of those who don’t believe. They are unable to see the glorious light of the Good News. They don’t understand this message about the glory of Christ, who is the exact likeness of God."
There are 49 references about Satan in the Holy Bible, but it summarizes to one as the god of this world who perverted the things created by God for the benefit of man. He caused people to not believe in God. Satan appears in different forms in our life. He can be in all the problems we met that covered our eyes from the truth and not see the glory of God.
The Good News divides people into two categories: those who remain in darkness, and those who are enlightened by God as was said in Acts 26:18 "to open their eyes and turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.". God’s action in bringing people to himself is a movement from a realm governed by darkness to the light of God’s presence; Colossians 1:12-14 "giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the kingdom of light. For he has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of the Son he loves, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins." (NIV); 1 Peter 2:9 "But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belonging to God, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light." (NIV)
The god of this world fights against the change that the Good News brings to people’s hearts and minds. Satan is trying... don't let him succeed to ensnare you. You got the choice to walk and live in the light of God in Christ Jesus.
The Liberator. The whole Chapter 5 of Galatians, Paul's message was about "Freedom in Christ," as said in verse 1 "It is for freedom that Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by a yoke of slavery."
Christ has truly set us free: Christians are free to walk by faith in Christ alone and live and stand firmly on His Word.
-do not be burdened again by a yoke (literally don’t take on a yoke): In Judaism, it was a duty and an honor to “take the yoke of the law.” God’s children in Christ are not called to bear this heavy burden; instead,they enjoy Christ’s yoke of freedom.
Luke 11:46 says, "Yes,” said Jesus, “what sorrow also awaits you experts in religious law! For you crush people with unbearable religious demands, and you never lift a finger to ease the burden."
Matthew 11:28-30 "Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light."
The religious demands are not the only yoke that Christians today are experiencing but also the things of this world used by Satan to deceive us. Things in the past and secret sins. There is nothing so wonderful than having a clean heart and a clear conscience between God and man.
The thing about religion also ais factor of Christians burden... people tend to debate about the Holy Bible... would it be nice to unite together and teach the Gospel of Jesus to all people who do not know Him instead of arguing about the bible? Religion cannot save us. It is just a way of life in learning how to follow Jesus Christ. The true religion according to the Bible according to James 1:27 is " Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world." (NIV)
The Goal of Character. Ephesians 4:13 "until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ."
The goal of ministry is for the whole Christian community to understand and experience the Christian faith more deeply and gain a deeper knowledge of God’s Son. In this way, believers will be mature in the Lord.
The standard of maturity is Christ himself; the Spirit’s transforming work is to make people fully like Christ as said in Romans 8:29-30 "God knew what he was doing from the very beginning. He decided from the outset to shape the lives of those who love him along the same lines as the life of his Son. The Son stands first in the line of humanity he restored. We see the original and intended shape of our lives there in him. After God made that decision of what his children should be like, he followed it up by calling people by name. After he called them by name, he set them on a solid basis with himself. And then, after getting them established, he stayed with them to the end, gloriously completing what he had begun." (MSG)
The Supreme Prize in Life's struggle. Philippians 3:8 "Yes, everything else is worthless when compared with the infinite value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have discarded everything else, counting it all as garbage, so that I could gain Christ."
Whatever we possess or gain in this world is useless if we do not have Christ in our life. Like what Paul said all things are worthless because of what Christ has done: A believer’s relationship with God is defined by knowing Christ and nothing else. The only important thing is to gain Christ, thus receiving the gift of eternal salvation.
John 17:3 "Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent."
Silver and gold cannot save us by comparison, all these things are meaningless garbage without Jesus Christ as our real wealth and treasure. We need money, we need job, we need house, we need clothes, jewelry, and all the things you want. The question is, do you want all these things more than you want Jesus? We want good things, but we don't love them. Want and love are two different words and has different implication. God wants. us to live in this world and enjoy the things of this world for which He created for us but not letting ourselves be influenced by its effect that will make us forget God and set Him in the lowest of our priorities. Jesus Christ our Lord God must be the center of everything as He is our prize in our struggle as Christians.
The Head of the Church. Colossians 1:18 "Christ is also the head of the church, which is his body. He is the beginning, supreme over all who rise from the dead. So he is first in everything." (NLT)
Church is Greek terms: ekklēsia (G1577), sunagōgē (G4864) means assembly, congregation, church. This noun means a gathered group, usually for the purpose of a political or religious meeting. In the New Testament, it usually refers to a local community gathered around faith in Jesus: the church. It does not refer to a building but rather the people who make up the community.
Head of the church: The Greek word kephalē (head) usually has the sense of authority over or chief when Paul uses it as a metaphor which is his body: The metaphor of the church as Christ’s body expresses the essential unity of Christ and the church; supreme over all who rise from the dead (or the firstborn from the dead).
The Coming Lord. 1 Thes 4:16 "For the Lord himself will come down from heaven with a commanding shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet call of God. First, the Christians who have died will rise from their graves." (NLT)
God’s trumpet will herald the resurrection, just as it previously announced the rescue of Israel .At the sound of the last trumpet, the Lord Jesus Christ, the incarnated Word will come down from heaven and will fight against Satan and his angels to rescue His people from the enemy.
The Blessed and only Sovereign. 1 Tim 6:15 "For at just the right time Christ will be revealed from heaven by the blessed and only almighty God, the King of all kings and Lord of all lords," (NLT)
God will complete the salvation promised to us before the world began, which Christ enacted in his first appearance The saving work of Christ is positioned within God’s sovereign and eternal purposes. This thought expands into worship of God our Savior.
Though the time of Christ's appearing is unknown, yet the thing itself is certain; God will bring it about, and make it manifest in his own time, in the time that is fixed and appointed by him; and which is only known unto him, and which he keeps in his own power, and has reserved in his own breast:
The Syriac version reads, "the blessed God"; who is blessed in himself, in his Son and Spirit, in the perfections of his nature; who is God all-sufficient, has enough in himself for himself, and for all his creatures; who is the fountain and the author of all blessedness, temporal, spiritual, and eternal, which any of them are, or shall be possessed of:
The judge of the living and the dead. 2 Tim 4:1 "I solemnly urge you in the presence of God and Christ Jesus, who will someday judge the living and the dead when he appears to set up his Kingdom:"
-when he appears literally means His epiphany which is epiphaneia in Greek (G2015) means appearing. This noun refers to the appearance of something previously hidden, unknown, or unrecognized. In the New Testament, it refers to the appearance of Jesus and his Kingdom.
Jesus is coming and He will judge the living and the dead according to our individual accounts.
The Redeemer. Titus 2:14 "He gave his life to free us from every kind of sin, to cleanse us, and to make us his very own people, totally committed to doing good deeds." (NLT)
The word "redeemer" has 18 verses for reference in the Holy Bible and 40 verses for the word redeem.
Salvation produces a people who have the desire and capacity for the good deeds outlined in Titus Chapter 2 verses 1-10 where Paul addresses different groups within the household of faith, showing his concern for the public testimony of the church.
The message of Titus 2:14 • He gave his life: 1 Tim 2:6 "He gave his life to purchase freedom for everyone. This is the message God gave to the world at just the right time." (NLT) • to free us: Gal 3:22; 4:4-5 "But the Scripture declares that the whole world is a prisoner of sin, so that what was promised, being given through faith in Jesus Christ, might be given to those who believe... But when the time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law, to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons." The words "free and purchase" derived from the Greek words lutron (G3083), ōG3084), antilutron (G0487) which means ransom which means to liberate something or someone, often through payment. The nouns (lutron and antilutron) refer to the ransom or payment itself.
In the New Testament these words refer to the substitutionary work of Jesus by which his people find relationship to him as God and Savior. Jesus Christ, our Lord God and redeemer has given us the full rights of being sons (generally this refers to all men and women children of God). What a privilege and opportunity for us. The phrase meant also that his very own people recalls the formation of Israel as a nation . Those who follow Christ are now God’s people—his nation—and the Spirit leads them to keep God’s covenants. God's covenants were not just meant for Israel but for all people in the whole world those who believe in God through the Lord Jesus Christ, the incarnated Word of God. His own breath and life as he came on flesh in His human nature through His deity (union of the Divine God and human person). • totally committed to doing good deeds: Titus 1:16 "They claim to know God, but by their actions they deny him. They are detestable, disobedient and unfit for doing anything good." (NIV) Ephesians 2:20 "That's plain enough, isn't it? You're no longer wandering exiles. This kingdom of faith is now your home country. You're no longer strangers or outsiders. You belong here, with as much right to the name Christian as anyone. God is building a home. He's using us all—irrespective of how we got here—in what he is building. He used the apostles and prophets for the foundation. Now he's using you, fitting you in brick by brick, stone by stone, with Christ Jesus as the cornerstone that holds all the parts together. We see it taking shape day after day—a holy temple built by God, all of us built into it, a temple in which God is quite at home." (MSG) The word "message in Greek is marturion (G3142): witness. This noun refers to something that serves as testimony or proof of an idea. It can refer to speech, actions, or even objects that confirm something.
The Author of our salvation. Heb 2:10 "In bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering." (NIV)
God is described as the final end and first cause of all things, and as such it became him to secure his own glory in all that he did, not only to act so that he might in nothing dishonour himself, but so that he might from every thing have a revenue of glory.
He is declared to have acted up to this glorious character in the work of redemption, as to the choice both of the end and of the means.
Heaven is the inheritance; and only those that are the children are heirs of that inheritance. All true believers are the children of God: to those that receive Christ he has granted the power and privilege of being the children of God, even to as many as believe on his name. Though the sons of God are but a few in one place and at one time, yet when they shall be all brought together it will appear that they are many. Christ is the first-born among many brethren. [4.] All the sons of God, now many soever they are, or however dispersed and divided, shall at length be brought together to glory.
The Great High Priest. Heb 4:14 "So then, since we have a great High Priest who has entered heaven, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to what we believe."
This verse effectively summarizes the whole message and challenge of Hebrews; the high priesthood of Jesus the Son of God is the basis for endurance in the Christian faith.
• a great High Priest: Israel’s high priest was the main leader in the worship of God and the primary mediator between God and the people.
• who has entered heaven: The earthly high priests entered God’s presence in the Most Holy Place once a year on the Day of Atonement (as was said in Lev 16:1-25). By contrast, Jesus, our High Priest, has entered God’s presence in heaven, and there he remains.
• let us hold firmly: An enduring commitment to active belief in and allegiance to Jesus. Col 2:19-21 "and they are not connected to Christ, the head of the body. For he holds the whole body together with its joints and ligaments, and it grows as God nourishes it. You have died with Christ, and he has set you free from the spiritual powers of this world. So why do you keep on following the rules of the world, such as,'Don’t handle! Don’t taste! Don’t touch!'?"
In the face of the false teachers’ enticing arguments, Paul exhorts the Colossians to stand firm in their faith in Christ, for in Christ lives all the fullness of God and their spiritual experience is complete in him.
The Greek word philosophia referred to everything from the metaphysics of Plato to the religious teaching of cults. Paul does not condemn philosophy per se, but only empty philosophical speculation that stands opposed to the Good News. • the spiritual powers of this world: or the spiritual principles of the world; This phrase may refer to elementary teaching that is characteristic of this world, "In fact, though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you the elementary truths of God's word all over again. You need milk, not solid food! (Heb 5:12 NLT), or to spiritual beings who were thought to have a decisive influence on the course of events.
We ought to be possessed of the doctrines, principles, and practice, of the Christian life. When we are so, we may be in danger of losing our hold, from the corruption of our hearts, the temptations of Satan, and the allurements of this evil world. The excellency of the high priest of our profession would make our apostasy from him most heinous and inexcusable; it would be the greatest folly and the basest ingratitude. Christians must not only set our well, but they must hold out: those who endure to the end will be saved, and none but they.
The Author and perfecter of our faith. Heb 12:2 "Let us fix our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy set before him endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. (NIV)
Jesus is the supreme example of faithful endurance. Our endurance in the Christian life will depend on our keeping our eyes on Jesus—staying focused on him and his work on our behalf.
• fix our eyes on Jesus. Jesus, the champion who initiates and perfects our faith (or Jesus, the originator and perfecter of our faith): Jesus has accomplished everything necessary for faith under the new covenant to be a reality. Just as a runner of the track and field concentrates on the finish line, we should concentrate on Jesus, the goal and objective of our faith. Philippians 3:13-14 " Brothers, I do not consider myself yet to have taken hold of it. But one thing I do: Forgetting what is behind and straining toward what is ahead, I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me heavenward in Christ Jesus." (NIV)
• perfecter of our faith. Our faith, which has its beginning in Him, is also completed in im; He is both the start and the end of the race. He is also the supreme witness who has already run the race and overcome.
• joy set before Him. He had something in view under all his sufferings, which was pleasant to him; he rejoiced to see that by his sufferings he should make satisfaction to the injured justice of God and give security to his honor and government, that he should make peace between God and man, that he should seal the covenant of grace and be the Mediator of it, that he should open a way of salvation to the chief of sinners, and that he should effectually save all those whom the Father had given him, and himself be the first-born among many brethren. This was the joy that was set before him.
• disregarding its shame: Crucifixion was the most shameful form of execution, meant to humiliate and torture the person crucified. It was used only for slaves and criminals who were not Roman citizens. Christ treated that shame as if it were nothing.
• seated in the place of honor: Jesus reached the place of ultimate honor at the right hand of God. The reward of his suffering: he has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. Christ, as Mediator, is exalted to a station of the highest honor, of the greatest power and influence; he is at the right hand of the Father. Nothing passes between heaven and earth but by him; he does all that is done; he ever lives to make intercession for his people.
What is our duty with respect to this Jesus. We must,
[1.] Look unto him; that is, we must set him continually before us as our example, and our great encouragement; we must look to him for direction, for assistance, and for acceptance, in all our sufferings.
[2.] We must consider him, meditate much upon him, and reason with ourselves from his case to our own. We must analogize, as the word is; compare Christ’s sufferings and ours; and we shall find that as his sufferings far exceeded ours, in the nature and measure of them, so his patience far excels ours, and is a perfect pattern for us to imitate.
Peter's Portraits of Christ
The Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16 "Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ,the Son of the living God." (NIV)
Peter’s acknowledgment of Jesus as the Messiah, the Son of the living God shows that his eyes had been opened by faith.
• the Christ. Messiah (a Hebrew term) and Christ (a Greek term) both mean “the anointed one.”
Here is a confession of the Christian faith, addressed to Christ, and so made an act of devotion. Here is a confession of the true God as the living God, in opposition to dumb and dead idols, and of Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent, whom to know is life eternal. This is the conclusion of the whole matter.[1.] The people called him a Prophet, that Prophet (Jn. 6:14); but the disciples own him to be the Christ, the anointed One; the great Prophet, Priest, and King of the church; the true Messiah promised to the fathers, and depended on by them as He that shall come. It was a great thing to believe this concerning one whose outward appearance was so contrary to the general idea the Jews had of the Messiah.[2.] He called himself the Son of Man; but they owned him to be the Son of the living God. The people’s notion of him was, that he was the ghost of a dead man, Elias, or Jeremias; but they know and believe him to be the Son of the living God, who has life in himself, and has given to his Son to have life in himself, and to be the Life of the world. If he be the Son of the living God, he is of the same nature with him: and though his divine nature was now veiled with the cloud of flesh, yet there were those who looked through it, and saw his glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. Now can we with an assurance of faith subscribe to this confession? Let us then, with a fervency of affection and adoration, go to Christ, and tell him so; Lord Jesus, thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
The Only Source of truth, John 6:68 "Simon Peter answered him, "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life."
As in the Synoptic Gospels, Peter acts as spokesman. The phrase "words of eternal life," the expression is general. Peter was not speaking of a formula but of the thrust of Jesus' teaching. He perceived the truth as was said in John 6:63, "The Spirit alone gives eternal life. Human effort accomplishes nothing. And the very words I have spoken to you are spirit and life."
The Greek word zoōpoieō (G2227): make alive. This verb means to give life to something. In the New Testament, it refers to the new, supernatural life that God gives to his people, both in the present and at the future resurrection of the dead.
The essence of Jesus’ gift is found in the Holy Spirit alone, not in human effort (literally the flesh). Life and understanding come through the gift of the Spirit as said in John 14:15-20 "If you love me, you will obey what I command. And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever— the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you.I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you. Before long, the world will not see me anymore, but you will see me. Because I live, you also will live. On that day you will realize that I am in my Father, and you are in me, and I am in you."
True life can be found only when the Holy Spirit infuses human life. To “eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood” involves a spiritual rather than a physical act.
The Shepherd and the guardian of souls. 1 Peter 2:25 "Once you were like sheep who wandered away. But now you have turned to your Shepherd, the Guardian of your souls."
The word shepherd in Hebrew is râ‛âh (raw-aw'), a primitive root; to tend a flock, that is, pasture it; intransitively to graze (literally or figuratively); generally to rule; by extension to associate with (as a friend), companion, keep company with, devour, eat up, evil entreat, feed, use as a friend, make friendship with, herdman, pastor, shepherd, wander, waste.
The Greek words poimēn(G4166), archipoimēn (G0750), poimainō (G4165) means shepherd. These words relate to taking care of sheep. They figuratively refer to someone who is in a leadership position, such as over a community or nation; a shepherd has authority, provides protection, and cares for the flock. The action of shepherding is poimainō, while poimēn refers to the shepherd. The related word archipoimēn means a shepherd of high status among other shepherds, a chief shepherd.
The Greek words episkopos (G1985), episkopeō (G1983), episkopē (G1984): overseer, oversee. These words refer to a person who is a guardian, supervisor, or overseer for a group. In the NT, it indicates a role or office in a local church. The nouns episkopos and episkopē refer to the person and the office respectively. The verb episkopeō describes the work of serving as an overseer.
• Once were as sheep going astray, which represents, (1.) Man’s sin: he goes astray; it is his own act, he is not driven, but does voluntary go astray. (2.) His misery: he goes astray from the pasture, from the shepherd, and from the flock, and so exposes himself to innumerable dangers. (3.) Here is the recovery of these by conversion:
• But now you have returned-shows that the return of a sinner is the effect of divine grace. This return is from all their errors and wanderings, to Christ, who is the true careful shepherd, that loves his sheep, and laid down his life for them, who is the most vigilant pastor, and bishop, or overseer of souls. Sinners, before their conversion, are always going astray; their life is a continued error, but Jesus Christ is the supreme shepherd and bishop of souls, who is always resident with his flock, and watchful over them. Those that expect the love and care of this universal pastor must return to him, must die unto sin, and live unto righteousness.
The Thompson Chain Reference Study Bible (NJKV)
The New International Version Study Bible
The New Living Translation Study Bible
Commentaries (From e-sword)