From my very old-fashioned learning I was told that the world has three basic human types: negroid, mongoloid and caucasian. Let us take for example the first of these - and this would apply to the others as well - the negroid are the people, basically from Africa who were commonly called negroes or, as they now prefer, black people. They are now living, as we know, in many parts of the world.
Of course, negroes are not black. They come in varying degrees of shade, some are very light-coloured indeed. For example, the descendants of the black people who settled in Massachesetts and the Northeastern States of America are pale indeed compared with those who live in, say, Senegal or the Congo. Skin pigments of melanin (I might not have spelled that correctly) are in everyone's skin. Nature allows it to develop more in people who are exposed to lots of strong sunshine. But where the sun is weaker, this is gradually 'bred out.' It is a process of natural evolution taking place over just a generation or two.
So you could say that most black people come in varying shades from very light brown through to almost a deep almost black. However, because they're all of negroid stock, they can all claim to be black.
The coppery colour of American Red Indians would also vary. The Innuits of Northern Canada would be of a different hue, I imagine, than those who live in Arizona and New Mexico. The further from the tropics, the lighter the hue.
Caucasians -so called whites - can range from the dark colours of people living in tropical India to those who have the alabaster skin of someone from the north of Scandivia.
So, to get back: three basic human types, dark or lighter conditioned over time by where they live as far as their continued exposure to sunshine.