The first Jews arrived in what is now the USA 1570, near the Texas area, and arrived in a steady trickle throughout colonial times. TheTouro synagogue is the oldest continuing synagogue in America, and was founded (in its current form, anyway) in 1763. By this time, there were other synagogues already established.
Jews were indeed a major part of early colonization. George Washington wrote them a formal letter (near the holiday of Rosh Hashanah, I believe, or maybe Passover) wishing them a good holiday.
In short, there were hundreds, more likely thousands of Jews already in America prior to the Revolutionary period. Jews are well-known for our wanderings.