Taking the view that Buddhism is also a humanistic tradition and some argue that it is an Atheistic tradition because it negates the beginning of the Universe [and a creator god], we can ask what are its philosophies.
I have been studying Buddhism (and a little of Hinduism occasionally) for a while, so I feel like I am developing a fairly reasonable opinion about Buddhism. Thank you for any questions related to Buddhism.
AEvans [at Hubpages] asked: What are the philosophies of Buddhism? Good question. I am glad this question was phrased "philosophies" [plural] instead of "philosophy" [singular]. It does sound odd at first to say that there are many philosophies behind Buddhism. I suspect that many Buddhists would prefer to say that there is only one well-defined philosophy of Buddhism, but upon careful study, I have to look at Buddhism as a bunch of philosophies. I could break it down by regions, or schools, or traditions. But even within one school, there seems to be apparent contradictions. But I like to look at the different philosophies as different ways to attack different problems for different people and circumstances.
One major philosophy of Buddhism is taught under the Four Noble Truths, as already given in the answer by pisean282311. That philosophy is an excellent way to treat most of our problems as the result of our undisciplined minds and that through the Eightfold Path, or whatever other Buddhist disciplines, we have the know-how to change our minds and become happier as a result, no matter what the situation. The Four Noble Truths Philosophy of Buddhism basically looks down on desires and cravings. The solution seems to be: If we can reduce (or even suppress) our desires, then we can reduce our suffering.
But then there are other philosophies under Buddhism where one transforms the desires (cravings) by "shining a light" on them through meditation to the point that we are no longer ruled by them. I think that is an method of attack used in Vajrayana Buddhism or Tantric Buddhism.
The Buddha is said to have given 84,000 teachings for all the different circumstances and development levels of persons. I take that to mean that there are 84,000 different philosophies or recipes, each designed for specific purposes to attack some problem someone may be facing.