There are many inconsistencies in this parable. The lazarus in this case is not the lazarus raised from the dead.
The jews believe that abrahams bosom is a place where the spirits of the dead go after their flesh dies and the place of fire is a preliminary to hell, where the ungodly go. draw a square and divide it half and label one side abrahams bosom and the other side hell. The problem with this is the inhabitants of both are in a place of judgment and scripture plainly states that no one is judged until the proper time. This is not purgatory either.
This is a parable depicting the fairness of god, plain and simple. Can u imagine a place where the dead are all lined up and yelling over to the saved? I certainly would avoid that section of abrahams bosom because i can assure you ALL the dead would be raising a ruckus and that would lesson our wonderful experience of being in the presence of god after judgment, besides we all know we live on a new earth and not anywhere near abrahams bosom. How did the rich man know that was abraham? He had never seen abraham nor is there a description of abraham in the book. The fact that the man was mildly uncomfortable is a head scratcher too because that is not the common association with hell as we know it. This parable is not about where the dead go, because the earth and the sea give them up for the judgment at the end. Your insight about Judah and Gentiles is interesting, i think you meant israel, inclusive of all 12 tribes, but anyway. the most important part of this teaching is about the dead not going back to the living. Its a bit of a stumper and i know it says hell but hell is sheol again, meaning grave, bit of a catholic tweak there. You'll have to get out of it what you can, keep in mind the text before and after. Jesus may be refuting misconceptions and endorsing correct concepts.