You can know 3 of the four by reading their gospels. Peter wrote 2 books (1 peter & 2 peter), James wrote a gospel message (James) and John wrote a few books that are in the new testament. John 1, 2 and 3. He also wrote the book of revelation.
By reading the scriptures you can get a idea of their personality types.
For example, Peter we all know because so much was written about the things he did. We know he was a go getter, bold and sometimes a little cocky. He was front and center at every event during Christ's 3 year ministry.
John had a special relationship with Christ. He was known as the one Jesus loved (not in a perverted way although people have insinuated such). He was shown the future, which is why he wrote the book of revelation. His visions where similar to Daniels visions.
Not much is known about Andrew except that he was Peter's brother. All of them dedicated their live to spreading the good news and all except one was martyred for it.
You could do a google search on apostle john and so on and see what you come up with.
I know this isn't much to go on, it will take more research to come up with a more definite answer.