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Traditional Jiu-Jitsu Vs. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, A Thorough Look
Traditional Jiu-Jitsu vs. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu:
By now, most people should already know what Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is. Before the first Ultimate Fighting Championship match in 1993 (UFC 1), not many people knew what BJJ was in the first place. After UFC 1, BJJ had become popularized due to the victory of Helio's son (Royce Gracie) over Ken Shamrock. Due to the size and mass difference between Gracie and Shamrock, Gracie's victory at UFC 1 exponentially popularized BJJ. Since then, BJJ has become one of the several staple styles of mixed martial arts (MMA).
However, there are many styles of Jiu-Jitsu that came before BJJ. These styles of Jiu-Jitsu, originating from Japan, can be all classiifed as “Traditional Jiu-Jitsu.” MMA, let alone UFC, emphasized the importance of being able to fight on the ground. With BJJ being a style that emphasizes being able to fight on the ground, due to the UFC, the style has become popular. To the uninformed, MMA made made those people even more uninformed. When they think Jiu-Jitsu, they only think Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.
The reality of it is that there are plenty of Jiu-Jitsu styles that predate BJJ. There are notable schools of Traditional aka Japanese Jiu-Jitsu. Many people usually ask the question: What's the difference between Japanese Jiu-Jitsu and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Those that have trained only in BJJ, they might find it difficult to answer the question. Many BJJ practitioners don't know that the style itself descended from Judo; on that same note, those same ones wouldn't be able to tell the difference between the two.
That's been a bane to many instructors that teach Japanese Jiu-Jitsu. One example would be a friend of mine who used to live in Pennsylvania taught Kashima Shinryu Jiu-Jitsu out of his grandfather's dojo. At times, he would confide in me on some of the stresses he deals with when teaching. This centuries old style combines grappling, striking, Kenjutsu, Battojutsu, Bojutsu, Jojutsu, Sojutsu, Naginatajutsu, etc. With some of his students being fans of MMA and knowing about BJJ through that sport, they keep asking him to teach him that type of stuff.
Many traditional Jiu-Jitsu instructors may have come across that problem. My same friend has come across people that train in BJJ and only know that type of style. Unfortunately, this is something man traditional Jiu-Jitsu instructors will come across.
However, one has to understand that Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu falls under the umbrella of Jiu-Jitsu. It is similar to how styles such as Shotokan, Wado-Ryu, Goju-Ryu, Koei-Kan, and so forth fall under the umbrella of Karate.
Traditional Jiu-Jitsu aka Japanese Jiu-Jitsu:
Like Karate, there is no singular form of Jiu-Jitsu. I wrote a similar piece in regards to Karate and the many different styles that fall under its umbrella. There are many styles that fall under the umbrella of traditional Jiu-Jitsu.
It is unknown who created Jiu-Jitsu in the first place. However, it is most likely to be derived from the various grappling techniques from the Chinese martial arts. In “Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance,” one section through Hsu Hao's Konquest Mode playthrough has players utilizing his primary hand-to-hand style of Shuai Chiao which is a style of Chinese Wrestling. It said that Shuai Chiao is believed to be the predecessor to Japanese Jiu-Jitsu.
Jiu-Jitsu was born out of the brutality of war. Most notably, the earliest schools of Jiu-Jitsu came out during the Sengoku Era aka “Age of Warring States” of Japan. Where samurai reigned supreme, due to the emperor being a figurehead and power actually belonging to the shogun, Jiu-Jitsu became popular.
While Jiu-Jitsu has striking attacks, much emphasis was on grappling. This was due to samurai being on the battlefield. Due to the weight of the samurai armor, it would be difficult to do strikes. But, grappling attacks such as throws and submissions would be more effective due to being able to grab onto samurai armor.
Even after Sengoku, Jiu-Jitsu was still around and continued to evolve through the centuries. This is due to samurai still being around. Also, many schools of Jiu-Jitsu incorporated weapons training such as Kenjutsu, Bojutsu, and Battojutsu. Even today, many schools of traditional Jiu-Jitsu still teach the use of weapons.
There are many schools of traditional Jiu-Jitsu that exist today. Here are some examples:
Historically, Tenjin Shin'yo-Ryu was one of the most popular schools of traditional Jiu-Jitsu up until the mid 19th century. It was widely popularized as one of the styles being the predecessor to Judo which in turn is the predecessor to Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. This style is the result of the merging the two Jiu-Jitsu styles Yoshin-Ryu and Shin no Shinto-Ryu. Asides from Judo, Tenjin Shin'yo-Ryu also played a role in the development of Aikido. This is due to Aikido's founder Morihei Ueshiba also being a student of the style.
This style of Jiu-Jitsu, like Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, has plenty of grappling techniques. However, it has both stand up and ground grappling.
This centuries old style of Jiu-Jitsu incorporates unarmed combat with and without armor. However, this style of Jiu-Jitsu incorporates other styles of combat: Kenjutsu, Battojutsu, Bojutsu, Naginatajutsu, and Sojutsu. It also teaches other arts such as Torite and Kappo with the former focusing on arrest & capture and the latter focusing on healing and resuscitation.
Tatsumi-Ryu incorporates unarmed grappling against both armored and unarmored people. But, it also incorporates the following: Kenjutsu, Iai, Sojutsu, Bojutsu, Naginatajutsu, Hanbo, and Monomi (scouting & observation tactics). This is one of the classical schools of traditional Jiu-Jitsu that incorporated unarmed grappling and use of weapons.
Kito-Ryu, one of the older styles of traditional Jiu-Jitsu, incorporates a combination of striking, throwing, and grappling. However, the techniques mostly focused on fighting against people with armor. This is due to this style of Jiu-Jitsu being around in the time of samurai. The throwing techniques from Kito-Ryu helped lay the foundation for Judo. Judo was developed in Meiji Era in which samurai were no longer allowed to carry weapons let alone katanas. That also meant techniques against samurai armor would be obsolete.
Daito-Ryu Aiki Jiu-Jitsu
This unarmed style of Jiu-Jitsu was founded early in the 20th century by Sokaku Takeda. Aiki Jiu-Jitsu emphasizes being able to effectively neutralize an attacker. It is the predecessor to Aikido and Hapkido as Aiki Jiu-Jitsu laid out the foundation for those two styles.
Neither Is Better Than The Other:
You have grappling tournaments and sports rules to thank for the misconception that Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is better than Japanese Jiu-Jitsu and vice versa. Keep in mind Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu came from Judo which came from traditional Jiu-Jitsu. Without those styles, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu would never have been created. If Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu wasn't created, then UFC would never have been founded (Rorion was one of the early founders). The sport of no holds barred (NHB) would not be called MMA.
In that respect, it's important to think of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and an extension of Jiu-Jitsu's ground fighting. It's also important to show that tournaments are the worst barometer to see if Japanese Jiu-Jitsu or Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is effective than the other. The sport and the martial art style are two very different things.
Even the styles that fall under traditional Jiu-Jitsu have modernized.
Japanese Judoka Mitsuyo Maeda, who was personally trained by Judo's founder Jigoro Kano, moved to Brazil. He was also trained by one of Kano's instructors Tsunejiro Tomita as a means to show that size did not matter in regards to Judo. Tomita was the smallest of the teachers; but, he is the first student from Kano and learned the most. Before Maeda permanently moved to Brazil, he along with other notable Judoka traveled across the world to promote Judo. In the United States, Maeda and Tomita gave a demonstration at Princeton University, United States Military Academy, and Columbia University.
Maeda traveled to England, Belgium, and Spain where he promoted Judo and worked as a professional wrestler. He also traveled to France.
His final destination was Brazil. Maeda became a very popular figure in Brazil. When he performed a demonstration at the La Paz Circus, Maeda got the attention of Carlos Gracie, the son of Gastao Gracie.
Gracie became Maeda's student. Together with his brother Helio (deemed too frail and weak to learn Judo) developed Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. That style follows the same philosophy as Judo: leverage and proper technique can overcome size and strength. Through Helio's expanding on Judo's groundwork, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu would slowly become developed.
Versus the styles of traditional Jiu-Jitsu, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu mostly focuses on fighting on the ground and it doesn't employ the use of weapons. However, one might want to know the difference between Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. Gracie Jiu-Jitsu is Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu; but, that type is usually utilized by members of the Gracie family. Also, one has to understand between the art and the sport.
In the actual martial art style, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has defenses against strikes. One should take a look at one of the Gracie Breakdown videos available to stream on YouTube. In the sport, striking is not allowed. Many BJJ schools fall under the same trap that many other traditional martial arts schools like Karate and Tae Kwon Do fall into in regards to being more of a tournament school which focus more on the sport (with rules) instead of the actual martial art that has the different attacks, defenses, and counterattacks.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu didn't get popularized until the first UFC fight in 1993 with the victory of Royce Gracie.
However, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is still considered a traditional martial art. Like Judo and traditional Jiu-Jitsu, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is practiced with a gi. You have formal and informal training. Eddie Bravo developed a strictly no-gi version of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu known as 10th Planet Jiu-Jitsu.
Keep in mind that while Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is derived from Judo, the name is derived from Judo's other name which is called “Kano Jiu-Jitsu.” Because of that, the style is called Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu instead of “Brazilian Judo.” The belt system utilized in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is derived from Judo. However, testing is more strict and rigorous under the International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation (IBJJF). But, there are other BJJ organizations such as Gracie Barra and Team Lloyd Irvin.
I have written similar pieces on such subjects. In order to get a better understanding, further information can be provided in these articles.