Jackie Robinson: The Story of an American Hero
Jackie Robinson, Dodgers, 1954
How a Baseball Player Changed the World
On April 15th, 1947, Jack Roosevelt Robinson stepped onto a baseball diamond in Brooklyn, New York.
That was a few years after African-American soldiers came home from defending America and freedom in World War II, only to discover they had to use "colored" restrooms, "colored" drinking fountains, "colored" barbershops and schools, and had to yield bus seats to whites. Many prestigious universities and colleges would not admit them, and they were barred from higher positions or offices in the workplace or in government.
Back then the father of Hank Aaron, future home run king of baseball, told his son that no black man would ever be allowed to play on a Major League team.
Jackie proved the naysayers wrong seven years before a brave young woman named Rosa Parks decided she wasn't going to give up her bus seat just because of her skin color.
There were a lot of courageous African-Americans -- and some non-blacks too -- who risked jail, verbal or physical attacks, police brutality, even murder to stand up and say, "No more; we're not going to let America off the hook until it lives up to its own ideals of liberty and justice for all!"
But Jackie Robinson led the way years before the civil rights movement caught fire, both by example and by what he did not do: lose his cool, retaliate against his tormentors in kind.
Jackie Robinson, #42, Brooklyn Dodgers
A month before his murder, Martin Luther King Jr. said to Don Newcombe, one of Jackie's later teammates:
"Don, you and Jackie will never know how easy you made my job, through what you went through on the baseball field."
I wasn't alive back then. I heard about this incomprehensible time -- of segregation, of prejudice, of hate -- from my parents and my grandfather, a Jew whose synagogue provided escort service to blacks to help them get past other whites trying to stop them from voting at the polls.
Sixty years later, I heard thoughtful people asking whether the country was ready for a black president. It's hard to believe that it was still a question. America's resounding answer, "Yes, we are," was reassuring — perhaps falsely reassuring, in light of the racial profiling, discrimination, and other grim signs that we still haven't entirely cleared away the unjust legacy of slavery and segregation.
So it's worth remembering what Jackie Robinson endured and the lesson he taught America.
A life is not important,
except in the impact
it has on others' lives.— Jackie Robinson
Breaking the Color Barrier
In the 1940s, baseball was America's Pastime. Not basketball. Not football. Not golf. It represented America, democracy and apple pie. Many more people followed baseball. It was linked to American pride-- and being white.
Blacks were playing baseball too, but they were in the Negro Leagues, followed and loved by blacks, ignored or mocked by almost everyone else. There were some fine players on those teams, and players like Jackie Robinson and Hank Aaron had their start in them.
Baseball Commissioner Landis opposed integration, but he died in 1944. At that time, Branch Rickey, owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers, launched his Great Experiment. He was committed to breaking the color barrier. He was also no fool -- he knew there was amazing talent in the Negro Leagues waiting to be tapped. So he looked for a skilled African-American ballplayer who would also be able to handle the prejudice, pressure, and hype.
Jack Roosevelt Robinson was his man. At UCLA, he'd been the first student ever to win varsity letters in four sports: baseball, basketball, football and track. Then he'd signed with the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro Leagues. Now, Branch Rickey gave him a challenge even greater than succeeding as a pro athlete: he must subject himself to nationwide hatred on and off the field, and he mustn't fight back.
If a player punched him or spiked him with cleats, or pitched a baseball at his head that might kill him, he couldn't respond. If a ump made an unfair call, he couldn't respond. If hotels refused to house him with his team, if teams protested his presence on the field or cancelled games to avoid him, he couldn't respond. If the papers vilified him, he couldn't respond. If spectators cursed him or ordered him to shine their shoes or threw black cats onto the field, he couldn't respond. If he got death threats pinned inside his locker, or if his wife was harassed in the stands, he couldn't respond.
All those things happened.
Nevertheless, Jackie Robinson won the first-ever Rookie of the Year award, and began a ten-year Hall of Fame career that brought the Dodgers their first World Series championship. He won respect by proving he was a skilled professional, shaming those who attacked him. His dignity was a weapon. So was his talent.
He showed America why racism was idiotic and unjust.
Hall of Fame Broadcaster Red Barber Discusses Own Prejudice
Jackie Robinson, Hall of Famer
After three years, as per his agreement with Branch Rickey, Jackie stopped turning the other cheek. He was finally allowed to defend himself when players or spectators vented their hate on him. He taught America something then, too: it was right and proper for a black (or any target of discrimination) to be angry and speak out.
In a saner world, his skin color wouldn't be the first thing we'd know about him; we'd just remember him as a famous athlete. His original Hall of Fame plaque gives a snapshot of his achievements: NL Rookie of the Year, NL Batting Champion, 6-time All-star with a .311 lifetime batting average. By all accounts, those bare statistics don't do justice to his speed, his agility, his maddening ability to wear out the defense with his cat-and-mouse baserunning. Several teammates have remarked that when the abuse on the field started to bother him, Jackie would make opponents pay by kicking it up a notch, stealing a base, or making some phenomenal play.
His uniform number, 42, was retired by the Dodgers in 1972. You can see the 42 sign from anywhere in Dodger Stadium, distinguished from the numbers of other Dodger greats by its color. I'm not sure whether that's ironic or appropriate.
Jackie Robinson Inducted into Hall of Fame
Jackie Robinson's Letter to Eisenhauer
Civil Rights Leader
After retiring, Jackie was briefly a GM in the short-lived Continental Football League, then became VP of a company, Chock Full o' Nuts, whose products were well-known to frequenters of baseball stadiums.
He continued to promote his nine core values: courage, determination, teamwork, persistence, integrity, citizenship, justice, commitment, and excellence. He funded and ran several businesses and encouraged black entrepreneurs, he spoke out and wrote articles on civil rights, and he defended men targeted by the so-called House Un-American Activities Committee that was in retrospect a most un-American activity.
Tragically, Jackie Robinson died in 1972, only 53 years old. In the following year his widow, Rachel Robinson, a professional nurse and Yale professor, founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation to provide college scholarships, mentorships and professional internships for minority youth.
Spotlight: Jackie Robinson's Biography - By Rachel Robinson
Jackie Robinson Day
Jackie Robinson Day - MLB honors 60th anniversary
On April 15, 1997, 50 years after Jackie Robinson first stepped onto Ebbetts Field in Brooklyn, #42 was retired from Major League Baseball, a unique honor for a unique baseball player. Ten years later, Ken Griffey Jr asked MLB Commissioner Selig if he might wear #42 in honor of Jackie Robinson Day. Selig declared that any player could wear the number on that day to honor a great man, and teams rushed to create special uniforms for the occasion. On some teams, one player wore 42. On others, everyone did. At the Dodgers/Padres game, all the Dodgers wore 42 minus their own names, and Hank Aaron observed that #42 was as great as ever, stealing bases, driving in runs, and playing great defense.
In 2008, many more players proudly donned Jackie's uniform. A new tradition in the tradition-minded annals of baseball seems to have caught everyone's imagination. On Jackie Robinson's day, all races, dozens of nationalities are proud to wear a number that has come to symbolize, literally, that all men are created equal.
Jackie Robinson Day Celebrations
Vin Scully Tells of Death Threats
Vin Scully Remebers Jackie Robinson, April 15, 2009
Dodgers announcer Vin Scully, a hall of famer for his silver voice who is celebrating his 61st year broadcasting all the Dodgers' home games, tells stories on Jackie Robinson Day about his own memories of "Jack" or "Jackie."
On April 15, 2009, Vin talked about Jackie's fire, determination, and anger, how it didn't come naturally for him to turn the other cheek. Vin said that when he got irked by things said or done to him, he'd steal second, then third, then home. After a while, other players who didn't approve of him were nonetheless warning each other not to harass him, because he'd make their team pay.
Vin told a story about a winter outing with Jackie and Rachel. The Robinsons had moved to Brooklyn from Pasadena, and had never been ice skating before. Jackie was "walking on his ankles," as Scully put it. Immediately Jackie challenged him to a race. Paraphrasing Scully from memory:
And I said to him, "But, Jack, you're from California. You don't know how to skate."
Then he got that look in his eye. "I know," Jack said. "But that's how I'll learn."
Jackie lost that race, but that's the kind of man he was.
Vin talked about a game in Cincinnati where Jackie had received death threats, saying he'd be shot if he stepped onto the field. FBI sharpshooters were brought in to monitor the game from the roofttops. There was an anxious team meeting before the game. Finally one player jumped up and said, "I've got it! I know what to do!" Everyone waited for his brilliant plan. "We'll all wear 42; then they won't know which one's Jackie!" The tense moment was broken up with laughter.
As VIn said, "Little did we know, someday it would come true."
Everybody Wears 42
Jackie Robinson Links For Further Reading
- Jackie Robinson Timeline | Dodgers Team History
For students: a good timeline of Jackie Robinson with useful info.
- Hall of Fame: Jackie Robinson
The official Baseball Hall of Fame's webpage on Jackie Robinson.
- Jackie Robinson: Gone But Not Forgotten
Recent MLB.com news article on Jackie Robinson's legacy.
- Jackie and Rachel Robinson Timeline
A timeline of Jackie and Rachel Robinson by Scholastic Books.
- TIME 100: Jackie Robinson
Hank Aaron's personal retrospective on Jackie Robinson.
- MLB.com's Jackie Robinson Day Site
Retrospectives, details of Robinson's career, interviews with teammates, multimedia, and more.
- Review: Opening Day
New York Times review of Opening Day: The Story of Jackie Robinson's First Season.
- Jackie Robinson
Wikipedia article on Jackie Robinson.
- Branch Rickey
Wikipedia article on Branch Rickey.
Jackie Robinson Tribute Video - Clips and images of Jackie Robinson
The end of this video shows Jackie shortly before his death giving a speech saying that he's pleased to have been nominated for an award (I can't remember which), but he would be more pleased when he saw a black man in standing in a coaching box.
That has come true, and there are now black managers, coaches, and team owners, but to this day some racial disparity in baseball remains.
Jackie Robinson Steals Home in '55 World Series
It's Jackie's most famous (and controversial) steal.
Catcher Yogi Berra still maintains that on this occasion -- one of 19 times Jackie stole home -- the ump blew the call. But many baseball experts agree this is the greatest steal in baseball history. It's hard to steal a base when everyone knows you're going to make the attempt. Also, it was the World Series!
Here's an ESPN video of Jackie stealing home: did he or didn't he?
Poll: Jackie at the '55 World Series
Did he or didn't he?
MLB Homage to Jackie Robinson (Narrator: Vin Scully)
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Jackie Robinson Movie: "42"
© 2007 Ellen Brundige