- Fashion and Beauty
Diamonds ... Beauty Treasured
One of the hardest substance found in nature and it is turned into one of the brightest and dazzling stones when carved carefully, a diamond is a gem that has been revered for centuries. In a diamond, carbon atoms are arranged in a crystal structure called diamond lattice. Because diamond is extremely hard and has high thermal conductivity, it has a major industrial application in cutting and polished tools. Diamond knives and anvil cells are extensively used in scientific applications. Diamonds are mostly colorless but sometimes extremely small amounts of impurities like Boron and Nitrogen gives it a colored appearance ranging from yellow, green, blue, pink, red or orange. Diamonds are formed at high pressure and temperature by both natural and man made processes. Natural diamonds are for,ed in earth's mantle and pushed up by volcanic eruptions. In order to rate a diamond four parameters are used and accepted worldwide namely carat (weight), cut, color and clarity. Today majority of the diamonds are synthesized in labs and a large part is mined. The mines are located in Central and Southern Africa, Canada, India, Russia, Brazil and Australia.
Materially a diamond is a transparent crystal. Diamond is the hardest substance known and this attribute is used in many areas. Because diamond is hard, its polished surface hardly gets tarnished and so it is perfect to wear daily. Diamond's hardness is used in cutting other stones including other diamonds. Because of its hardness(toughness), it can withstand pressures of up to 6 million atmospheres which is used in scientific applications. Mined diamonds are carved or cut into beautiful gems by the delicate process of cutting. Carving a diamond is an extremely specialized process which requires special tools and scientific knowledge. While cutting several shapes are considered for a diamond including weight reduction.
List of diamonds
Kohinoor :- The meanings of Kohinoor is " Mountain of Light". When it was first discovered in the 13th century in Guntur in India it weighted 793 carats. It was owned by Kakatiya dynasty, Sikhs, Persians and Mughals. Finally it passed on to the British where it was presented to the Queen of England in 1849. Finally it was cut by to a stone of 105.6 carats under the supervision of skilled artisans in England. It was finally placed on the crown jewels and is presently displayed in London Museum to general public.
Cullianan Diamond:- It was Found in Premier No. 2 mine in Cullianan in South Africa in 1905. It was cut presented to King Edward VII on his birthday and it wighed 530 carats after being cut and polished by Joseph Asscher. Finally it found its way to the crown of Queen England and is presently placed there.
Hope Diamond :- Hope is a blue colored diamond weighing in at 45 carats. It is one of the famous jewels in the world due to its color and size. It was found in India near Andhra Pradesh. It contains traces of Boron which gives it its blue color. French merchants are supposed to have gotten possession of the stone and they took it to Paris and sold it to King Louis XIV. There is was cut and polished. The stones is believed to have been stolen from France during French Revolution. It changed hand from British to United states merchants and is presently with Smithsonian Museum In Washington DC.
The Pink Star:- The Pink Star or the Steinmetz Pink is a pink colored diamond mined by De Beers company. It was found in 1999 in South Africa. The color of the diamond is pink and is extremely rare. The cutter took 1.5 years to cut and polish the diamond delicately. Presently the diamond is present with Sotheby's and has an estimated value of $80 million.
Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond:- Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond weighs around 6 grams and is nearly flawless. It was found in Guntur in Andhra Pradesh from where it eventually passed on to the Europeans. In the eighteenth century it was in Vienna. Laurence Graff became the owner of the diamond in 2008 and he decided to re cut the diamond to its present shape. He sold it to former emir of Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani. The diamond was valued at $80 million when sold.
Heart of Eternity:- Heart of Eternity is a blue diamond and weighs 27 carats. It was found in South Africa and is estimated at at least $16 million. De Beers company displayed it at London Millennium Dome. Later on De Beers company acknowledged its sale but did not mention the buyer so the present owner is unknown.
Moussaieff Red Diamond :- Moussaieff Red Diamond is a 5 carat diamond and red in color. It was discovered in Brazil in a river and is presently owned by Moussaieff Jewellers Ltd. and has an estimated value of $20 million.