ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Barber

Updated on August 23, 2010

Barbering dates back to antiquity. Barbers are mentioned in Egyptian papyri, and in ancient Greece and Rome barbershops were favorite meeting places where men discussed the affairs of the day. In folklore, the barber has been represented as a talkative person, the retailer of news, gossip, and homely advice.

In early Christian monasteries barbers rendered the important services of cutting and shaving the hair of monks, who were required by ecclesiastical law to wear the tonsure. After a papal decree of 1163 had forbidden the clergy to shed blood, the practice of periodic bloodletting as a health measure was also given over to barbers. The monastery barber was called Rasor et Minutor (barber and remover of blood).

Photo by Andrew Mogridge
Photo by Andrew Mogridge

Barber Surgeons

Barbers figured importantly in the history of medicine, especially in the development of surgery as a recognized branch of medical practice. Most early physicians disdained surgery and gave over to barbers this and other ministrations such as bloodletting, cupping and leeching, treating wounds, and extracting teeth. In this they followed the dictates of the Arab physician Avicenna (980-1037), the leading medical authority of medieval times, and a staunch opponent of surgery.

Nevertheless, surgery gradually gained recognition and was admitted to the curriculum of many European universities. In an effort to distinguish between academic surgeons and barber-surgeons, the College de St. Come, founded in Paris about 1210, identified the former as surgeons of the long robe and the latter as surgeons of the short robe. French barbers and surgeons were organized as a guild in 1361, and barber-surgeons were admitted to the faculty of the University of Paris in 1505. The father of modern surgery, Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), began his career as an itinerant barber-surgeon.

In England the barbers were chartered as a guild by Edward IV in 1462, and were merged with the guild of surgeons under a charter by Henry VIII in 1540. In practice, however, barbers who cut hair and gave shaves were forbidden to practice surgery. In France, a decree by Louis XV in 1743 prohibited barbers from practicing surgery, and in England in 1745 the surgeons were separated from the barbers by acts passed during the reign of George II. Their final separation came in 1800 with the founding of the Royal College of Surgeons during the reign of George III. From then on, barbers were specialists in haircutting, and not surgeons.

The traditional barber's pole of red and white stripes symbolizes the bloodletting and bandages formerly associated with barbers.

Modern Barbering

Today many barbershops offer additional services such as shampoos, scalp treatments, facial massages, manicures, and the fitting of hair pieces. In the United States barbers are usually trained in special schools and must pass examinations and be licensed by the states in which they work. In the mid-1960's there were 200,000 barbers in the United States, most of whom managed or were employed in small shops.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)