Artificial Intelligence - a Boon to Our Near Future
Programming a computer or a machine such that it can do tasks or solve problems that requires human intelligence is the basic concept of AI. Artificial Intelligence is a technology with which a machine can work and function just like humans as it is able to process information and acquire knowledge through learning. AI is an emerging technology and will become a very important part of our daily lives in no time.
The term AI was first coined by John McCarthy in the year 1955 in a famous Dartmouth conference. And this conference started the field of Artificial Intelligence. The original definition of AI was given as:
Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans and improve themselves.
The 7 original aspects of AI were given as:
- Simulating higher functions of human brain
- Programming a computer to use general language
- Arranging hypothetical neurons in a manner so that they can form concepts
- A way to determine and measure problem complexity
- Abstraction: defined as the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events.
- Randomness and creativity
And now, after 64 years of research on AI we have seen improvement, to atleast some degree. Programming to use general language, way to determine problem complexity and self-improvement are some of the aspects we have succeeded in. Now researchers are working on randomness.
Types of AI
Based on functionality AI is of four following types:
- Reactive Machine AI:
This is a fundamental type of Artificial Intelligence. It reacts to the current environment that it is in. That is it can only function around the simple tasks for which it is programmed. That’s why the name Reactive Machine AI. For an instance an application of Reactive AI is Deep Blue Machine, a chess playing supercomputer developed by IBM. It is known for being the first chess playing system to win a chess game against reigning world champion. Deep Blue’s skills are undoubtedly amazing and highlights its reactive abilities. Likewise its reactive mind also indicates that it has no concept of past or future.
- Limited Memory AI:
Limited memory AI unlike Reactive Machine AI derives knowledge from past experiences. It learns from observing past data or actions fed to them. An existing application of Limited Memory AI is Autonomous vehicles or self-driving cars. It detects and observes the movement of vehicles around it constantly and responds accordingly to avoid hitting traffic nearby. Earlier the autonomous vehicles took 100 seconds to react and make judgements on external factors. But as the advancement of technology, the reaction time dropped sharply.
- Theory of Mind:
Theory of mind AI is a very advanced technology. It basically represents decision making ability and social interactions as in humans. It should be able to understand people’s emotions. Though many improvements are done in this field but still it is not yet successfully developed. Its application consists of voice assistants but still none are fully capable of holding conversations. Some robots are also developed as an application of Theory of mind, like Sophia which is a humanoid bot created by Hanson Robotics. What makes it unique is her physical likeness to a human. It has an ability to see images and reacts to interactions with appropriate facial expressions.
Self-awareness Artificial Intelligence is the most awaited form of AI. It involves machines having human level consciousness. This form does not yet exist but would be considered the most advanced form of Artificial Intelligence. AI include the ability to understand human emotions and replicate them as well as respond to them. It would be super intelligent and have the ability to think for itself, have desires and have a deeper understanding of emotions.
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