C program code for stack data structure
Storage of data in the memory unit of a computer system affects the speed of program execution by the CPU. If virtual memory and cache memory can manage large volume of data and provide faster access to them, stacks are memory areas that store function attributes in a Last In First Out manner (LIFO). Whenever a function is called, its parameters and local variables get pushed to the top of the stack for faster execution. After the function exits returning values, it gets removed and the next function is being pushed to the top. The main operationspush and pop in a stack are best illustrated through the abstract data structure using pointers.
C program for implementing stack operations takes function code as the data item in the structure. Functions are identified using this code and the stack is built in the order of Last in First out manner. Different steps involved are creation, pushing and removal.
1. Stack creation
Data structure stack contains function code, ‘funcode’ as the main data item and a pointer to the next function in the stack. Global pointer ‘top’ always refers to the top of the stack that gets linked to the next element. Recursive function create_stack() is responsible for creating the stack that reads the function codes of each for execution. The temporary variable ‘ptr’ holds its value and it gets linked to the ‘top’ pointer. As ‘top’ always points to the last entered function in a stack, it is made to point to ‘ptr’. Recursion of the function builds the stack and whenever the code becomes -999, this process stops.
Flowchart for the function create_stack()
2. Push operation
Push operation accommodates the newly entered function making it the top. This operation is carried out by the function push(sta *ptr) which takes the new function node ‘ptr’ as the parameter. The function starts by reading the ‘funcode’ of ‘ptr’ and assigns values
The ‘top’ pointer is made to point to ‘ptr’.
Flowchart for the function push(sta *)
Output of push operation
3. Pop operation
Functions are removed from stack after they are executed. This is done by the pop operation that removes the last entered ones first. Function pop() does this task that refers pointer ‘ptr’ to ‘top’ first and makes ‘top’ to point to the function next to it. Then ‘ptr’ is freed from the memory using the free() operator.
Flowchart for the function pop()
Output of pop operation
4. Displaying a stack
Displaying the stack is another important part of the program. Just like we display nodes in the linked list, stack elements also can be displayed. Pointer ‘cur’ is made to point to ‘top’ and the value ‘cur->funcode’ is displayed each time the loop is executed. Pointer ‘cur’ is incremented to point to the next element of the stack and the loop exits when the value of ‘cur’ becomes NULL.
Flowchart for the function display()
A stack can be said to be a restricted data structure, on account of the lesser operations performed on it. Stack elements follow a natural order as they are removed from the stack in the reverse order to the order of their addition. Therefore, the lower elements are those that have been on the stack for the longest.
C program code
struct stack *next;
typedef struct stack sta;
void push(sta *);
printf("\n\n\tCreate stack(-999 to end):\n\n");
printf("\n\n\n\t\t\tCreated stack is:");
printf("\n\n\tEnter your choice:");
case 1: ptr=(sta *)malloc(sizeof(sta *));
printf("\n\n\n\t\t\tStack after push operation is:");
case 2: pop();
printf("\n\n\n\t\t\tStack after pop operation is:");
case 3: exit(1);
ptr=(sta *)malloc(sizeof(sta *));
printf("\n\tEnter each function code:");
void push(sta *ptr)
printf("\n\tEnter the function code:");
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