Highly Efficient LEDs
High powered light emitting diodes (LEDs) face problems owing to overcrowding. For the LEDs to have a higher efficiency their electrons should not run into one other.
By adding boron to indium-gallium nitride (InGaN), scientists were able to prevent congestion — eliminating heat dissipated —thus making the LED, highly efficient at producing light. Modern LEDs are made up of layers grown on top of one another. A LED basically has three layers. One of the layers is made up of a lot of electrons. Another layer is made up of a few electrons the empty spaces are called holes. There is another thin layer sandwiched between the layers mentioned above, and it determines the wavelength of the light emitted. Too many electrons in the sandwiched layer would result in too many collisions — owing to heat wasted — thereby decreasing the throughput of the LED. One possible solution is having a thicker sandwiched layer — similar to the surrounding layers — which would ensure fewer collisions, thus increasing the efficiency of the LED. Practically this feature can be realized by including boron in the middle layer. LED semiconductor materials are essentially crystals — atoms are arranged in a specific pattern, apart from one another. When crystalline materials are layered — by growing one on top of another — the spacing between the atoms should not be affected. Unfortunately, the layers of InGaN which surrounds the layer of Gallium Nitride (GaN) have deformities, do not match the lattice parameters — spacing between atoms. Scientists were able to correct this by sandwiching a thicker layer — by adding boron — without effecting the lattice patterns of the surrounding layers. Through this innovative approach collisions between electrons would be avoided, hence increasing the efficiency of LED. Although boron is incorporated in the sandwiched material — made of Boron Indium Gallium Nitride (BInGanN) — the wavelength of the light emitted remains the same. Furthermore, they can also be tuned to emit other colors in the visible spectrum. This groundbreaking LED can be effortlessly realized in any electronics laboratory.
Through the aforementioned method, LEDs which are more efficient, affordable and durable can be easily contrived.