History of Airplane
The airplane, aircraft or aircraft (for short), is a vehicle heavier than air can fly. According to scientific classification, airplanes are airplanes, seaplanes and along with anfibi.In as such, are able to fly using an aerodynamic force (called lift), generated thanks to the relative motion of the air along a fixed surface ( call wing). They differ from gliders, since they have one or more engines and therefore fall under the larger category of heavier-motor, which also includes helicopters and other aircraft, but they do not have fixed wings.
The planes are divided mainly into two categories: military and civilian. The military in turn are divided into fighter aircraft, bombers, ground attack aircraft, training aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, transport planes. Those are divided into civil airliners, cargo planes (also known as cargo), executive jets and private aircraft. In general then you have aerobatic aircraft that are usually fighter, trainer or touring, sometimes modified to suit the unique stresses of aerobatic flight.
The first plane itself was born in 1903, when the Wright brothers succeeded in taking flight to a sort of glider with an engine of 16 horsepower at Kill Devil Hill at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina, USA. This first flight lasted 12 seconds, reaching a height of 120 feet (40 meters), was little more than a leap that probably did not survive the downforce.
Alberto Santos-Dumont was an engineer (though he has not had an academic background in this area) and aviation pioneer. Designer of dirigibles and airplanes, it is sometimes considered the father of the two flying machines, since its first flights were the first to take place on closed circuits in the presence of large audience. In particular, the flight of 14-Bis, 12 November 1906, the first officially recognized in Europe AEROCLUBE flight to France of a heavier than air machine capable of taking off by themselves, unlike the first catapulted Wright, is considered the first public demonstration of an airplane. Just for take-off autopropellente Santos Dumont is considered to be a part of the scientific community and aviation, mainly in its country of origin, as the "Father of Aviation".
Initially the aircraft was considered a curiosity for fans, but gradually began to recognize the skills and born the first models capable of performance from time to time considered impossible until recently before: fly over the Alps, flying over the English Channel, or simply reaching ever higher heights and speeds.
For this reason, the beginning of the development of aviation technology is linked to sporting events that sought to mark new records. In these early aircraft were driven by piston engines and a propeller attached to the structure was biplane, or two-story wing. The start of a more scientific development took place in conjunction with the First World War. Until then, the states were relatively uninterested in the potential of new media, but the war did finally understand.
Between 1914 and 1918 were born many models of biplanes intended initially to the tasks of reconnaissance, in which the new medium excelled on all the previous ones. Later, the pilots began to throw hand grenades at the enemy in what may be called the ancestor of the bombing tactics. The natural response was to equip its pilots with guns to shoot at enemy aircraft to prevent it from attacking its own lines, giving rise to the fighter aircraft.
At the end of World War I, the airplane came out much improved, despite the double wing and generally maintained the entire structure was not particularly changed at first sight. They were much more powerful engines were developed that allowed benefits unaffordable to the conflict and its predecessors were also added many features which allow a more accurate navigation.
Since the winds began to look at the aircraft as a peaceful means of transport. Thus were born the first airlines that needed to fledgling industries from transport aircraft models with size, range and speed appropriate to the new requirements. Compared to the initial search and then military sports, there was no specific need to increase as emphasized while they were handling the problems of scale, which should be enough to carry a certain number of passengers, and the increase of 'autonomy.
In recent years the plane seemed to take over the plane is familiar to us: the first was in fact greater flexibility of use since it did not need groomed (as then the planes will leave from hard courts, relatively simple to build). Furthermore the hydroplane undoubtedly has the logistical advantage of using most of the existing port infrastructure.
The peaceful (and indeed slow) evolution of the airplane suffered a further acceleration with the new winds of war blew about the world in the mid-thirties. Quickly made obsolete by aircraft were biplanes monoplane, which from the first flight proved to be able to break down barriers that have proven insurmountable for biplanes, the speed quickly went from just over 300 km / ha more than 500 km / h with clear chance of improving, and the same happened to the altitude reached, the maximum range, handling and acceleration.
At the outbreak of World War II powers of each was equipped with a modern fighter and bomber aircraft, usually the air arm had been incorporated in the Army who is an independent entity from the Navy, setting up a typical division into three arms: army Navy, Air Force.
During the Second World War, the need became clear air gun to win a modern war operations in marine and terrestrial.
The attack ground targets are divided into strategic and tactical.
The strategic bombing of the war were a constant: the German air attacks on London which ended with British victory in the Battle of Britain (only the first battle fought by aircraft and antiaircraft, victory achieved by the use of planes as the Hurricane and Spitfire) were followed by those conducted by formations of Allied bombers on Germany and Japan (which culminated with the release of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and were crucial in breaking the resistance of the Axis cause irreparable damage to production capacity.
In this role, the big bombers were known as the propellers He 111, Ju 88, Do 17 for Germany, while Allied bombers also built with larger engines and four more with a load capacity: the most famous are the B-17 , B-24, B29 Americans, the British Lancaster relentlessly bombed the city until the surrender of the Axis.
Even the ground troops soon began to fear the enemy aircraft: the role of the fighter-bomber tactics were used to support the advance of his army gave strafing and dropping bombs and rockets on enemy positions and columns to lighten hearing before the crash land. In this role, the P-47 distinguished Americans, the British Typhoon, the Ju 87 Stuka German and Soviet IL-2 (the plane built in several copies in the story). The latter two were also the only aircraft specifically designed for ground attack, while the others were hunting used in this role, having the ability to perform strafing or dropping bombs on the enemy.
At sea it became clear that the era of the great battleships with formidable guns was over in favor of aircraft carriers: the fighter-bombers and torpedo planes launched from aircraft carriers on board forced the huge battleships to a humiliating handed sailing under the relentless bombardment of small and manageable aircraft, could offer only an inadequate anti-aircraft fire while the aircraft carrier that launched the planes could also be a few hundreds of kilometers beyond the range of the guns of the battleship. In the role of coastal patrol and convoy escort vessels, seaplanes equipped with torpedoes often collaborating with the corvettes and frigates.
During the war, also there were also only aerial battles, in which fighters clashed with the aircraft of their opponents in different situations: interception, freedom fighter, combat air patrol or following an order to "scramble". The hunt is divided into light and single-seater single-engine fighters and heavy fighters, two engines and two / three-spot.
The first was the most agile and lightweight, for use mainly during the day, while the second was heavy and clumsy in flight, normally would have been worse against a single engine-car, but was armed with guns of greater caliber and later in war, given its size, was capable of carrying a radar independently from terrestrial stations that make it ideal in the role of night fighter and interceptor.
In recent years, the radar was also born, British invention, but quickly exported to the United States and adopted in Germany. It was the only way to predict well in advance a attack enemy aircraft and allow their fighters to take off on time. At first only in land based locations, then also mounted on aircraft.
The weapons used were machine guns, cannons, small arms, bombs dropped and with the progress of the war also unguided rockets air-land-air or air to break the formations of enemy bombers.
Next to the Air Force also developed devices on the ground to limit the damage of air strikes or to react independently from its fighter aircraft: born air-raid shelters, bunkers, medium-caliber anti-aircraft guns (Flak said in German, for Flugabwehrkanone), firing 88 mm grenades exploding typically a small share of pre-programmed and rapid-fire cannons and machine guns for close defense, which at times were half-tracks mounted on vehicles to ensure a minimum of mechanized forces to air defense.
But at the end of the war, at the height of the development of propeller-driven airplanes, a new invention developed in those years by Germany and the UK was about to completely revolutionize the airplane for the second time after moving to production monoplane: the engine was jet. At this point, arrived at the end of World War II, it is necessary to divide the evolution of technology in military and civil aviation.
The Military Aircraft In The Postwar Period
Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat.
-The fighter aircraft are designated to destroy facilities / equipment / aircraft enemies using your weaponry. The combat aircraft are divided mainly in:
.fighter plane (dogfight)
.bomber (Strategic bombing)
.fighter (tactical bombing)
. air ground attack (Close Air Support)
-The non-combat aircraft are those aircraft not designated for combat as their primary function may carry arms and weapons for self-defense and are mainly used in supporting roles. They are divided into:
In the last months of World War II appeared earlier models of jet aircraft: they had the outline of the propeller plane perpendicular to the fuselage with wings and jet engines drowned in the two wings. For Germany, the first to invent the jet engine, was brought into the Messerschmitt Me 262, while Britain responded immediately with the Gloster Meteor. Both aircraft soon proved far superior in speed, load capacity and acceleration of all their precursors to the propellers, but the numbers reduced by war production limit its use. But now the road was sealed.
Immediately after the war ended it was clear that all models that had fought were now obsolete: as at the time of the transition from biplane to monoplane, so the jet planes were capable of benefits for aircraft propellers were simply not possible.
The Second World War was ended with the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan, making it clear to all the powers it was important to have nuclear weapons. Having the atomic bomb, however, was not enough It's also suitable carriers to deliver on targets thousands of miles away from the motherland, the solution to the transportation of nuclear power in a country in the late forties and early fifties was the bomber. The propeller-driven bomber of World War II became obsolete even faster than propeller-driven fighter. Already since 1946 were withdrawn most models of bombers that had pounded the city of the Axis. Only the B-29 American (who made the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) seemed appropriate to carry such weapons: They are used operational altitude, high speed and high payload as possible. Since the early fifties were tested and then introduced the first strategic bomber with jet engines, which will shortly have all fleets equipped bombers.
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The Civil Air Transport And In The Postwar Period
By the end of World War II the world will gather in front of a destruction never seen before, but enriched with many technologies incorporated in the war and that now becomes interesting from a civil point of view. The aeronautics sector was a major beneficiary. Before the war, some were known civil aircraft and propeller planes, which then would become of the bombers had been developed under the false image of aircraft to carry passengers. Normally could not carry more than 20-30 people and how that seaplanes were very good competitors classic aircraft (remember the German Dornier Wal seaplanes of the 1920s and the most famous X Do the 1930 capable of carrying up to 100 passengers). The range was limited (1000 miles), not to mention the speed to be around 300-400 km / h faster transport.
Upon entry into the U.S. war, the U.S. Army found itself in the need to carry beyond the oceans (Atlantic and Pacific) large numbers of men and equipment quickly. Whether to carry an entire armored division with all the tanks were obviously necessary for the vessels, so it was not for rifle companies, important documents, spare parts for essential personalities and mail. Thus were born some remarkable propeller-driven airplanes with large load capacity and not as indifferent as the C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4 for the companies after the civil war), the Lockheed Constellation (after the war while the new L049 will be renamed already built as airliners have the name L649), the C-74 Globemaster, C-97 (developed during the war, but ready in late).In addition to their cargo planes were a bit 'smaller, but more famous as the C-119 Flying Boxcar, but especially the C-47 (DC-3 or in civil, Dakota for the British) and the Junkers Ju 52 Germans. The last three types mentioned were also used for the launch of paratroopers behind enemy lines and in this role made famous Allied planes dropping occupied France on the American airborne divisions 82 º and 101 º and the Red Devils, British paratroopers.
After the war the great quantity of war material product, when possible, was converted to civilian tasks. So the military to transport stranded products were a major war easily adaptable to a task of civil airliners and cargo. Many airlines, especially American took advantage of this use of war to expand and enhance their global network of making the world smaller. In this role the aircraft along with many other causes have contributed to avoiding a new global wars enabling easier and real understanding between the peoples of the world.
But even in the role of scheduled air the path of screw propulsion was over. Began the modern liner, designed as a mass phenomenon.
As early as 1943, Britain was studying for a solution to an airliner and a cargo jet propulsion in the medium-long range with a capacity of 80 persons and speed of 800 km / h. Note that these specifications were to be considered something of science fiction in 1940 ... even the fastest fighters were capable of those speeds not to mention the autonomy and the load beyond the possibility of any transport propellers. Finally July 27, 1949, in Great Britain fly the first aircraft with jet engines: the de Havilland DH 106 Comet. It was still a period of studies on aerodynamics, so it's normal that its structure is slightly different from that normally attach to an airliner: had 4 jet engines embedded in pairs in the two wing roots (not stuck like today) and the fuselage was not exactly circular but has two bumps on the underside.However, in principle, already had a modern design and the size of an MD-80. Despite the Comet was the first airliner with jet engines did not have the good fortune that could be expected: in the early 1950 he had ascertained that some structural problems that led to failure-related incidents.The problems of the Comet was the beginning of the first serious study of the fatigue failure of metals. Once solved the problems it was too late to recover the lost road on U.S. competitors, Boeing and Douglas meanwhile had virtually monopolized the market in the western world. The comet was then developed in the military version for the RAF under the name of Nimrod in the eighties and has left the service after being beaten once again by American rivals ever for the choice of an airplane radar for the RAF.
In the fifties, in France, the Southeast placed on the market the Caravelle, the modern form of an airplane with two jet engines in the queue (the size of a 737). The Caravelle was the first jet to full line of sales success.
The success of the Caravelle and the only partial success of the Comet, virtually marked the end of European production of airliners (and as we have seen even in the military things will get better). The BAC One-Eleven, a short-haul air (domestic and international) product in a few hundred in Britain (and also licensed in Romania) will be the last commercial airliner to the European Franco-British cooperation to arrive at the Concorde ( that will be discussed later), but also to the creation of the Airbus consortium in the 1970s.
In the United States aerospace companies could count on huge capital, thanks to the expansion occurred during the war, if these are added to the rapid technological research and the insight that the aerospace companies now had to have a certain level, we understand the success Boeing and Douglas. In fact, Europe had not yet understood, especially for sliding rivalry between states, not yet ready to collaborate, now the small domestic companies were no longer capable of producing great innovation.
The Douglas after gaining success in 1930 with the DC-2 / 3 (DC-1 was the only demonstration) built the DC-4 aircraft propellers, but the modern form, with the landing gear as we know it and capacity of 60 passengers. The last airliner propellers success was the DC-7 in 1950, but its development has been undermined by the success of the jet. So at the end of 1950, early 1960, to market the Douglas DC-8, a modern fully air-jet propulsion. Finally in 1970, appeared the most famous of modern aircraft Douglas: The DC-9 (a twin-engine medium-short range, with motors in the tail and tail T) and DC-10, a three-engined long-haul with a motor root of the tail and the other 2 wings. Both projects have been updated when the Douglas merged with McDonnell Douglas McDonnell giving rise to give rise to the MD-80 (DC-9) and MD-11 (DC-10). These last two families of planes were in production for several decades, and have been set aside only after the merger between Boeing and McDonnell Dougals.
When you hear talk of airliners is not uncommon to hear phrases like "when the Boeing landed," a Boeing cargo of aid, "a Boeing crashed." Speaking of Boeing today is to speak of civil air, so that it is not uncommon in the field of hearing about mistakenly "Boeing" referring to any commercial airliner. This is due to the huge success of the company in the field of American airliners, so that in 1990 Boeing was able to buy rival McDonnell Douglas. The enormous success of 7n7 models as they are called the line of Boeing aircraft, began July 15, 1954, when the 707 (C-135 for the USAF) stood out on the first flight.It was a long-haul air medium, four engines with engines under the wings and fuselage wide (wide-body). In short its aerodynamic model would have been recognized as the most successful for airlines, so that was taken on any airliner hits to date. It was initially designed for the military and then sold on the civilian market with the first version of the line followed in 1959 by the 707-120 and 707-320 Intercontinental that made it the first airliner to the intercontinental flight as we know it. The 707 and C-135 was built until 1980, with 1850 units built (1000 for the civilian market), developed in numerous civil and military variants. Along with the 707, in the early 1960, was born 727, an airliner for short and medium routes with 3 engines in the rear, but sharing the aerodynamics of the 707. Follow all the models that fill today's airports and skies of the world: 737, 747, 757, 767 and now 777 and 787 in the future.
In view of the American aerospace companies, the market lacks the Lockheed airliners. Indeed, in the year 1970, Lockheed sought to enter the civilian market with the production of L-1011 TriStar: it was very similar to the DC-10, but apart from a limited sales success, the aircraft suffered in the recession of the airliners of eighties, for which Lockheed Martin (in the meantime there was the merger of Lockheed and Martin Marietta) still remains synonymous only with military aerospace technology.
In Europe, as in the case of military aircraft, the total blackout in the aerospace manufacturing lasted about 20-30 years and also in the civil sector to give impulse to the European aircraft manufacturer was in France: as we saw in the 1950 s 'Europe had withdrawn from the field while allowing the entire U.S. market. A separate study from the British and French of the years 1950 and 1960, the two nations join forces to produce a commercial aircraft with supersonic speed and intercontinental range. In 1969, the Concorde made its maiden flight.
But the ambitious project, Concorde was a failure in practice given the very limited production numbers and the lack of export to third countries. The cause is unknown as in the case of the Lockheed TriStar, the Concorde, a car fuel consumption and suffered very high operating cost of the crisis that affected the aerospace industry after the oil crisis of 1970 caused by the Yom Kippur War (October 1973) between Israel and Arab states already. Despite the failure of concrete, the Concorde project achieved great success indirectly, because of what his name called for "the harmony" of Western nations finally left by national rivalries and jealousies and joined in aeronautics for the construction of large airliners that could compete with Boeing.
Driven by France in the 1970's, the consortium Airbus Industries was born from the merger of Aerospatiale, French Hawker Siddley (later BAe) British, German Fokker VFW and CASA of Spain. The first jet aircraft was the Airbus A300, followed by a series of A-3n0 with loans covering the full range of civil transport, domestic flights by up to intercontinental.
Today, the beginning of the 2000s, is the new Airbus rival Boeing, with a sales success equal to that of the traditional American giant. The competition is played on two main benefits: the scope and autonomy, ie the number of passengers that the aircraft can carry a full load and how many hours you can fly with a full tank of fuel.
Note the absence of Italy, always very pro-American point of view, aircraft and even today Alitalia and Air Force use different aircraft made in USA.
Finally, we note that essentially the main air transport technologies (propulsion, aerodynamics) are still about the seventies (as indeed we have seen military aircraft), since the innovation in the civilian sector has concentrated on saving fuel, passenger comfort, low pollution and light materials. Nevertheless we have made great strides:
.materials technology applied to today's engines can produce more powerful engines, reliable and quiet, which consume about 50% less than production engines in the seventies;
.The use of modern computer technology has revolutionized the avionics, so that the cockpit of a modern airliner looks like very little to that of an airplane designed in the seventies. The use of computer systems on board aircraft has also allowed the removal of the third component of the flight crew, the flight engineer or flight engineer, who was first deputy managing aircraft systems today largely responsible computer. The development of computer technology has also led to the deployment of flight fly-by-wire, through which the pilot does not directly control the control surfaces dell'areomobile, but its controls are first filtered and processed by a series of redundant computer that ensures that the aircraft does not exceed the certification;
. as Airbus A320 and, even more, with the Boeing 777, the aircraft design is now fully implemented on the computer, both to reduce costs, both to ensure adequate safety and efficiency;
.since the last generation of aircraft (Boeing 787 and Airbus A350) composite materials which were used only for certain aircraft components, replace the aluminum in the construction of the fuselage, which involves both a reduction in weight is increased resistance especially corrosion