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How Exactly Do Electric Devices Work?

Updated on October 29, 2017

Electricity, as I am aware, is produced when a wire is rotated around a magnet to create an electric flux. It can also be created through a chemical reaction against an anode, an electrolyte, and a cathode.

From there, the extra electrons move through the conductor towards the positively charged terminal; to fuse and create a state of neutrality. In the process, a current, that apparently flows in the opposite direction, is created. The current keeps flowing as long as the two terminals are not conjoined.

High voltage conduction
High voltage conduction | Source

Electric supply.

After the production of electricity, it is required to be supplied across the county for every persons' use. A countrywide supply means a heavy production, which means the use of heavy machinery and equipment to produce the desired current. The current is then supplied with copper cables in high voltage to ensure efficiency. However, the supply voltage cannot be used for personal use. It obviously carries a huge voltage that can scotch a whole building, or fry a man in a couple of minutes.

Therefore, the current is supposedly reduced to a standard 250 volts charge. This is still a very high voltage for most household devices. Therefore, further gadgets called Transformers are integrated to reduce the voltage to 20, 15, 12, and even 5 volts for small personal devices. Then the story begins.

Basic elements used in electronic circuits

Apparently, there are other basic elements used to make our day-to-day electronics. These are: Resistors, Capacitors, Integrated circuits, and others called diodes.

The resistors reduce the current flowing in a certain direction. They act like mini-transformers in a circuit. The capacitors store charge for some time for the electronics.They must be multipurpose. They act like tiny batteries that prevent a device from damage in case of unexpected power loss. They are also used to remove disturbances in speakers and in electric bells, I don't know what for.

The integrated circuits are quite easy to comprehend about. According to what I have read online, they are complicated large circuits that have been mapped on microscopic Motherboards. They are constructed differently according to their use.

The transistors, on the other hand, are three-legged devices that look funny. According to electricians, it magnifies current. However, they are quite bewildering. First of all, they have three terminals. According to my research, there are two known terminals in electronics; positive and negative. Where on earth could the other terminal be soldered?

Secondly, I can't clearly state when exactly they magnify the current. All that I know is that the current is supposed to be standard.

Diodes. Now, these are quite easy to comprehend. They are used to channel current into a certain direction and prevent it from flowing in another. If in any case, the current successfully manages to penetrate through the device, in the wrong direction, it is reduced to a very low voltage, an estimate of 0 volts. I sure could have used one of these while I was trying to create a homemade sound amplifier. I could have prevented the heavy current from flowing in the wrong direction. I ended up blowing up my computer sound card due to an incorrect connection.

Elctrical elements in a circuit
Elctrical elements in a circuit | Source

How do we now integrate the devices together to make the electronics?

Now that I have given you an overall tutorial of all the elements of the electronic motherboards, in all your household and pocket devices, could you take, join, and build something electronic with the respective elements?

Last year, I took to an electrician and told him to make me a custom home sound amplifier. Quickly, he went to an electronics shop next door, and purchase an Integrated Circuit (IC). He then took an old radio and soldered out 4 diodes, 4 resistors, a transistor and a capacitor. Then he took out a transformer, inscribed something like 15v|A.C, from another old sound system.

With that, he started doing his magic. After an hour, he said it was ready. He tested his masterpiece. And what a perfect project! Noisy as ever.

Weeks later, I took back to the same electrician. This time I needed a custom aerial receiver for my TV model. With the same magic ingredients and an added wire coil, he started performing his magic again. Then Puf! His device was ready and working just fine again.

A complete artifact from common electronic elements
A complete artifact from common electronic elements | Source


Now the question is this: How come same basic elements are used to make completely different devices? In fact, they are so different that if in any case, you plug the wrong device into the wrong location, the device will either burst or burn out a circuit.

How do they get to be so different, yet same electric elements are used to make the gadgets?

© 2017 Alex muiruri


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