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How to Installation and Upgrade Fedora 18

Updated on May 26, 2014

In this tutorial I am going to tell you about

  1. Obtaining the CDs and DVDs
  2. Making use of repositories
  3. Installing with Fedora Live
  4. Install DVDs
  5. Installing Fedora Linux
  6. Custom partitioning
  7. Additional software repositories
  8. Setting up Fedora
  9. Upgrading your system
  10. Re-installing the bootloader

Obtaining the DVDs

To download Fedora 18 for installation from a DVD/CD-ROM drive, you download either the Fedora Install DVD

image or a Fedora Live image. The Fedora Install and Live images are large files that have an .iso extension. Once

they are downloaded, you burn them to a disk using your CD or DVD writer and burner software, like the Brasero or

K3b on Fedora.

There are ISO images for 64-bit system support and for the standard x86 (32-bit) support. Download the

appropriate one. You cannot run a 64-bit version on an x86 (32-bit) system.

To obtain the current version of Fedora, go to the Fedora Project web site and click on the Get Fedora link

(http://fedoraproject.org). There are several pages you can use. The first holds a download button for the i386

(32 bit) version of the Fedora Live iso images. You can, from this page, link to more detailed pages that includes x86_64

(64 bit) versions, the DVD ISO image, and alternative spins, as well as other methods for downloading, like BitTorrent

and Jigdo.

Fedora 18 is considered an older release and is available on the Fedora archive at:

http://archive.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/18/

The Fedora Install DVD resides within the Fedora subdirectory, under the respective version (i386 or x86_64),

in an iso directory (Fedora/i386/iso). The Live images reside in the Live subdirectory, under the respective versions

(i686 or x86_64).

Fedora 18 is also available on the mirror sites. You can directly access a Fedora mirror site by entering the

following URL. You then need to navigate through the releases and 18 directories to find the Fedora and Live

directories where the Fedora Install and Live iso images are kept.

http://download.fedoraproject.org

You can also access a specific mirror at the following URL. The current Fedora mirror and their addresses are

listed here. The addresses include web and FTP addresses. You can use an FTP client like gFTP or Filezilla to perform

a direct download.

http://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/publiclist/

Install Strategies: Making Use of Repositories

With Fedora 18, for installation you can use either the Fedora Install DVD or one of two Live DVDs—Live Desktop

with GNOME or Live KDE with KDE. The Fedora Install DVD allows you to download from specified repositories

during installation as well as select the packages you want installed. It also includes a more extensive set of packages

on disk than the Live DVD.

One major advantage of the Install DVD is its flexibility in the selection of software packages during installation.

The Live DVDs install only a predetermined set of packages. The Fedora Install DVD allows you to select the packages

you want to install, offering a much larger selection to choose from. The Fedora Install DVD is an extensive collection

of the more popular applications (servers, development, and desktop).

The Fedora Install DVD also allows you to install packages from the Fedora repository as well as from any

associated repository you choose, like http://rpmfusion.org. With the Fedora Install DVD, you can choose to

download additional packages from the Fedora repository that are not included on the Fedora DVD.

Live DVD Advantages

Quick download of small install disk (about 900MB)

You can check out the desktop operations on a Live DVD interface

Quick install of basic desktop (cannot select packages)

After the install, you can add current packages from online repositories as needed

Fedora Install DVD Advantages

Larger collection of initial software packages: servers, administration, multimedia, office

(much larger initial download of Fedora DVD image: 3GB)

Can install more packages without having a high-speed connection for downloading from

repositories

Can specify which packages to install

Can download from the Fedora repository during installation

Have a more extensive set of install packages on hand for later installs

Installation Issues

Before you install, you should be aware of certain installation issues such as dual-booting on a system with Windows,

basic hardware requirements, storage options, and installation sources. Most of these concerns do not apply to a

normal installation.

Installing Dual-Boot Systems

If you have another operating system already installed on the same computer as your Linux system, your system will

be automatically configured by GRUB, the bootloader, for dual booting. Should you have Linux and Windows systems

installed on your hard disks, GRUB will let you choose to boot either the Linux system or a Windows system. Manually

configuring dual boots can be complicated. If you want a Windows system on your computer, you should install it

first if it is not already installed. Otherwise, Windows would overwrite the bootloader that a previous Linux system

installed, cutting off access to the Linux system. You would then have to use the rescue option on the Install DVD disk

to access your Linux system and then reinstall the GRUB bootloader.

Storage Configuration

Fedora Linux is very flexible, using a minimum of about 1GB RAM and 9GB hard disk space for everything. The

minimal install uses as little as 100MB.

Linux usually runs on its own hard drive, although it can also run on a hard drive that contains a separate

partition for a different operating system such as Windows. You can also install Fedora on specialized storage devices

such as a Storage Area Networks (SANs) or iSCSI, FCoE, or zFCP disks.

If you want to install Linux and Windows on the same hard drive, and you have already installed Windows on

your hard drive and configured it to take up the entire hard drive, you can choose to resize its partition to free up

unused space during installation. The freed space can then be used for a Linux partition. See the Fedora installation

guide for more details. You can also use a partition management software package—such as fdisk, Parted, or Partition

Magic—to free up space before installation.

Install Sources (Install DVD)

Fedora supports several methods for installing Linux. You can install from a local source such as a CD/DVD-ROM

or a hard disk, or from a network or Internet source. For a network or Internet source, Fedora supports NFS, FTP,

and HTTP installations. With FTP, you can install from an FTP site. With HTTP, you can install from a web site. NFS

enables you to install over a local network. For a local source, you can install from a CD-ROM or a hard disk. You can

start the installation process by booting from your DVD-ROM, or from boot disks that can then use the DVD-ROM or

hard disk repository. Fedora documentation covers each of these methods in detail.

To select an install source, you need to boot the install kernel, either from a Fedora 18 Install DVD or CDs, or from

a Fedora Install DVD image file (you can also use USB disks and PXE servers). Press the ESC key to display the boot

prompt. At the boot prompt you enter the option linux askmethod, as shown here:

boot: linux askmethod

After you configure your language and keyboard, a dialog appears with options for local CD/DVD/hard drive,

NFS directory, and URL (FTP and HTTP installations).

Basic Install with Fedora Live Desktop DVD

If you want to download and install Fedora quickly, you can just install it from the Fedora Live Desktop DVD, which

allows you to see what Fedora is like, without having to install it. Should you then want to install Fedora on your

system, you can do so using just the Fedora Live Desktop CD. You can then later download and install software you

want to add from the Fedora repository.

The Fedora Live Desktop DVD includes the GNOME desktop. If you want to use the KDE desktop, you can use the

Fedora Live KDE CD. The Fedora Live Desktop and Fedora Live KDE have i686 (32-bit x86 systems) and x86_64 (64-bit

systems) versions.

The Fedora Live Desktop DVD installs a basic set of applications. Should you want to install a more complete set

or install applications from other software repositories during the install process, you can use the Install DVD. The

Install DVD is also a Live disk, and allows you to run Fedora first. The Install DVD is much larger though, about 3GB.

Once the installation program begins, you follow the instructions, screen by screen. Most of the time, you need

only to make simple selections. The installation program progresses through several phases. You perform some basic

configuration, set up Linux partitions on your hard drive, configure your bootloader, and then install the software

packages.

Once you download and burn the Fedora Live Desktop DVD, place it in your CD/DVD drive, and boot your

system from it. The system starts up automatically and displays the following menu

By default the first entry, Start Fedora 18, is selected. Press Enter to start Fedora. Should you need to add options

directly to the boot command, press the Tab key. A command line is displayed where you can enter the options

(see Figure 2). Current options will already be listed. Use the Backspace key to delete and the arrow keys to move

through the line. Press the ESC key to return to the menu.

For more start-up options and testing, use the arrow key to move to the Troubleshooting entry. The

Troubleshooting menu enables you to use the basic graphics mode, test the media, test the memory, and boot from

a hard drive (see Figure 3). Use the arrow keys to move from one menu entry to the next, and then press Enter to

select the entry.

The first option (start Fedora 18 in basic graphics mode) starts up with basic video. The second (test this

media & start Fedora 18) will test if your DVD media is okay. The third (run a memory test) performs a hardware

memory test. The last (boot from local drive) will boot a local OS on a connected hard drive, if there is one.

When you first start the Live disk, you can choose whether to try Fedora or to install it (see Figure 4). If you want

to install Fedora directly on your system, click the Install to Hard Drive icon to start the standard install procedure

(Anaconda), as described in this chapter. You will be installing Fedora just as you would from the standard Fedora

Install DVD. The only difference is that only the small subset of applications already on the Fedora Live Desktop DVD

will be installed. You cannot choose applications during the install process.

You can also install Fedora at any time from the Fedora Live Desktop. On Activities, there is an icon showing the

hard disk and Fedora logo image with the label, Install to Hard Drive.

The install process has fewer options than the DVD install process, but performs all necessary tasks. The screens

shown are as follows:

Language: Select your language.

Installation Summary: Configure your installation. The Fedora Live install has three

options: Date & Time, Keyboard, and Installation Destination. A warning emblem is

displayed on those options that require configuration. Ordinarily, only the Installation

Destination option has a warning emblem. You cannot continue until all options with

warnings are configured.

Date & Time: Select your city from the map or the pop-up menu or click on the timezone on the

map. This option may not have a warning on it, but could still be incorrect. Be sure to check it.

Keyboard: Select and configure your keyboard, if you need to.

Installation Destination: Choose the hard drive to install on, and set up your partitions.

You have the option to manage your own. Once you finish configuring your installation

summary items, the installation begins, showing a progress bar.

Root Password: You are prompted to enter a password for the root user. This is your

administrative password.

When the installation finishes, a simple Quit button will be displayed with a message to restart to complete

the installation. You can close at this point to return to the Fedora Live Desktop, and then restart to reboot to your

installed system.

On reboot, you enter the Fedora Setup Agent procedure, where you can set the date and time and create a

standard user, which you can use to log in for normal use (not as root). More users can be created later. After Setup,

your login screen appears and you can log in to your Fedora system.

Initially you will have only the same software available as was on the Fedora Live Desktop DVD, but you can

use System Tools | Software to install other applications, like LibreOffice. You may also have to update many of the

applications installed from the Fedora Live Desktop DVD. Click the update notification icon on the message tray (lower

right), which will appear automatically, to start the update process. (Or, from the Software Application’s GNOME menu,

choose Check for Updates.) Applications and updates are downloaded from the Fedora repository and installed.

Quick Install with the Install DVD

If you are installing from the Install DVD, installation is a straightforward process. The graphical installation is very

easy to use. It provides full mouse support and explains each step with detailed instructions on a Help pane (you can

also use the Install CDs).

Most systems support booting a DVD-ROM or CD-ROM, although this support may have to

be explicitly configured in the system BIOS.

Also, if you know how you want Linux installed on your hard disk partitions, or if you are

performing a simple update that uses the same partitions, installing Fedora 18 is a fairly

simple process. Fedora 18 features an automatic partitioning function that will perform the

partitioning for you.

If you choose package collections from one of the preconfigured packaging installations,

you will not have to select packages.

For a quick installation you can simply start up the installation process, placing your Install DVD in your optical

drive and starting up your system. Graphical installation is a matter of following the instructions in each window as

you progress. Many of them are self-explanatory. The steps involved are the same as for the Fedora Live install, but

with more options at the Installation Summary stage:

Language: Select your language.

Installation Summary: Configure your installation. The Install DVD has several options

with three categories: Localization, Software, and Storage. For Localization, you can

configure the Date & Time and the Keyboard. For Software, you configure the Installation

Source, Software Selection, and Network Configuration. For Storage, you configure the

Installation Destination. A warning emblem is displayed on any options that require

configuration. Ordinarily only the Installation Destination option has a warning emblem.

You cannot continue until all options with warnings are configured.

Date & Time: Select your city from the map or the pop-up menu or click on the timezone

on the map. This option may not have a warning on it, but could still be incorrect. Be sure to

check it.

Keyboard: Select and configure your keyboard, if you need to.

Installation Source: Choose the install source, DVD, or network.

Network Configuration: Configure your network connection.

Software Selection: Choose the environment to install: a desktop (GNOME, KDE, Xfce, and

LXDE), web server, development workstation, infrastructure server, or minimal install. With

each option, you can also choose to install additional packages.

Installation Destination: Choose your hard drive to install on, and set up your partitions.

You have the option to choose from several default configurations, or mange your own.

Once you finish configuring your installation summary items, the installation begins,

showing a progress bar.

Root Password: You are prompted to enter a password for the root user. This is your

administrative password.

After the installation, you will be asked to remove your DVD and click the Reboot button. This will reboot your

system (do not reboot yourself ).

On reboot, you will enter a Fedora Setup Agent procedure, where you will be able to set the date and time and

create a standard user, which you can use to log in for normal use (not as root). More users can be created later. After

the setup, your login screen will appear and installation will be complete.

Installing Fedora Linux

The installation process used on Fedora is a screen-based program that takes you through all installation steps,

as one continuous procedure. You can use the mouse or the keyboard to make selections. When you finish with a screen,

click the Continue button at the bottom to move to the next screen. If you need to move back to the previous screen, click

Back. You can also use Tab, the arrow keys, spacebar, and Enter to make selections. You have little to do other than make

selections and choose options. Some screens provide a list of options from which you make a selection. The installation

process will first install Linux on your system. It will then reboot and start a Setup process to let you set the time and date

and create a user to log in as. The steps for each part of the procedure are delineated in the following sections.

As each screen appears in the installation, default entries will be selected, usually by the auto-probing capability

of the installation program. Selected entries will appear highlighted. If these entries are correct, you can simply click

Next to accept them and go on to the next screen.

Starting the Installation Program with the Install DVD

If your computer can boot from the DVD, you can start the installation directly from the Install DVD (or the Install CD).

The installation program on the DVD Install disk presents you with a menu listing the following options:

Install Fedora 18

Test this media & install Fedora

Troubleshooting

Use the arrow keys to move from one menu entry to the next, and then press Enter to select the entry. Should you

need to add options, press the Tab key. A command line is displayed where you can enter the options. Current options

will be listed. Use the Backspace key to delete and arrow keys to move through the line. Press the ESC key to return to

the menu.

The Troubleshooting menu enables you to use the basic graphics mode, rescue a Fedora system, test the

memory, and boot from a hard drive.

Install Fedora in basic graphics mode

Rescue a Fedora system

Run a memory test

Boot from local drive

Return to main menu

The install program (Anaconda) will automatically detect and configure your video card so that it can run a

graphical interface for the install procedure. If it has difficulty configuring the video card, you can choose to use a

basic video driver instead, which means you can still use the graphical install. Choose Install Fedora in Basic Graphics

Mode from the Troubleshooting menu.

If you already installed Fedora 18, but the system fails for some reason, you can start up from the Install DVD and

then choose Rescue a Fedora System from the Troubleshooting menu.

Check Disk Media

If you have doubts about the integrity of your DVD, you can choose to perform a check of the media before installation

(see Figure 5). This check can take several minutes. On the Install DVD this option is on the first screen, and on

Fedora Live it is on the Troubleshooting screen. You can stop the check at anytime by pressing the ESC key to enter a

shell. Then type the exit command and press Enter to continue with the installation.

Initial Setup

If your basic device and hardware configuration was appropriately detected, a Welcome screen is displayed, with a

Continue button on the lower-right corner. Once you’re finished with a step, you click Continue to move on. In some

cases, you can click a Back button to return to a previous step.

Tip Your mouse will be automatically detected. If you have a USB mouse that is not being detected, try reinserting

the USB connector several times. If you cannot use your mouse for some reason, you can use the Tab key to move to

different components and buttons. Use the arrow keys to select and enter a list. Press the Enter key to click on a selected

button or entry. The Tab key will cycle through entries on a screen sequentially. To return to a button or component, just

continue to press the Tab key.

You are then presented with an Installation summary screen with categories for Localization and Storage

(see Figure 7). For Localization, you can configure the date and time and the keyboard. For Storage, you can

configure the Installation Destination. A warning emblem appears on options that have to be configured, usually just

the Installation Destination, although you should also check that the date and time are correct. A Quit button at the

bottom left of the screen lets you quit the installation. A Begin Installation button at the bottom right remains grayed

out as long as there are warnings. When all options are configured and the warning emblems disappear, this button

becomes active, and you can click it to continue the installation.

For the Install DVD, the Installation Summary screen shows a Software category with Installation Source,

Software Selection, and Network Configuration (see Figure 7). See the sections, “Software Installation Configuration

with the Fedora Install DVD/CDs” and “Network Configuration with the Fedora Install DVD/CDs

With warning emblems present, a warning appears at the bottom of the screen, as shown here:

To check and configure your time, date, and timezone, click on the Date & Time icon. On the Date & Time screen,

you have the option of setting the timezone by using a map or pop-up menu to specify your location (see Figure 8).

The selected city will appear as the pop-up menu selection. There is a switch that lets you turn off network time (the

time obtained from NTP servers). A configure button next to this switch opens a dialog that lets you specify the NTP

time servers to use. Click the Done button in the upper-left corner when finished.

On the Installation Summary page, click the Keyboard icon to configure your keyboard (see Figure 9). Keyboard

layouts are listed on the left scroll box. Clicking on the plus button at the bottom of this box lets you add another

language layout. The Keyboard button displays an image showing all the keys. A text box to the right lets you test the

keyboard. The Options button lets you specify which keys to use to switch layouts.

On the Installation Summary screen, click the Installation Destination icon to open the Installation Destination

screen, where you can choose the hard disk device on which to perform the installation (see Figure 10).

The top icon bar shows your installation devices. The local drives are shown under Local Standard Disks heading

(see Figure 11). If you have only a single local hard drive, that drive is automatically selected for you.

At the bottom of the screen, information is displayed about the selected disk (see Figure 12). The Full Disk

Summary and Options link opens with information about the device, as well as buttons to remove the device and

install the bootloader. You can use this dialog to choose not to install the bootloader. If you have several hard disks,

you can choose which one to install the bootloader on (should this be an issue). Usually, you install the bootloader on

the same device as Fedora.

A check box to the right lets you encrypt the device.

When you have chosen the device you want, click the Continue button on the lower-right side of the screen. If the

destination disk has enough space, the Installation Options dialog appears telling you so and showing the partition

type (see Figure 13). At this point you can simply click the Continue button to let Fedora automatically configure

and partition your hard disk and perform the installation.

On the Installation Options screen, the LVM partition scheme is chosen by default. From the drop-down menu

you can choose a different scheme. The options are LVM, BTRFS (RAID), and Standard (ext4).

Upon pressing Continue from the Installation Options screen, your installation beings with a progress bar at the

bottom of the screen (see Figure 14).

At the same time, you prompted to enter set the root password (see Figure 15). A warning emblem is displayed

on the Root Password icon on the Configuration screen.

Click on the Root Password icon to open the Root Password dialog. It has text boxes for entering the root user

password (administrator). See Figure 16. Click the Done button at the upper left when you’re finished. The warning

emblem on the Root Password icon disappears.

When installation finishes, a completion message is displayed at the bottom of the screen. The Fedora Live

installation shows a Quit button that returns you to the Fedora Live Desktop (see Figure 17). The Install DVD shows

a Reboot button.

Automatic Partitioning

If you have a system with a Linux system already on it, and you want to delete the old system, you can delete those

partitions and then automatically partition your drive using the free space. You will initially receive an Installation

Options dialog (see Figure 18).

Click the Reclaim Space button to open the Reclaim Disk Space dialog, which lists all your current partitions

(see Figure 19). Should you also have a Windows system on your hard drive, it will have a partition type of ntfs. You

should be careful to leave it alone. To free up space, click on a partition entry and click the Delete button located just

below the list of partitions (see Figure 20). If you make a mistake and mark the wrong partition for deletion, you can

unmark the partition by clicking the partition again and then clicking the Preserve button.

Once you have marked all the old partitions for deletion, you click the Reclaim Space button at the lower right

(see Figure 21). Your free space is automatically partitioned and the Installation Summary screen shows automatic

partitioning for the Installation Destination item (see Figure 22)

Manual Partitioning: Partitions, BTRFS, RAID, and Logical Volumes

On the Installation Options screen you are given the option to customize the disk partitioning. Click the Let Me

Customize the Partitioning of the Disks Instead check box and then click the Continue button. This opens the Manual

Partitioning screen (see Figure 23). The left side scroll box lists the partitions as you create them. If your hard drive

is blank, it will be empty. The button bar at the bottom of the scroll box has buttons for adding partitions, deleting

them, displaying information, and for the Help dialog (right icon), as shown at the top of Figure 23. It is highly

recommended that you read through the Help dialog, which provides a very detailed explanation of how to configure

your partitions.

You are asked to designate the Linux partitions and hard disk configurations you want to use on your hard drives.

Fedora provides automatic partitioning options if you just want to use available drives and free space for your Linux

system. You can create specific partitions, configure RAID devices, or set up logical volumes (LVM).

No partitions will be changed or formatted until you leave the Manual Partitioning screen and, from the

Installation Summary screen, you click the Continue button. You can opt out of the installation any time until that

point, and your original partitions will remain untouched. A default layout sets up a swap partition, a boot partition of

type ext4 (Linux native) for the kernel, and an LVM partition that will hold all your applications and files.

Initially, with no Linux partition set up and space available, you can click the Click Here to Create These

Automatically link to create a default set of Fedora partitions. These are a boot, root, and swap partition (see Figure 24).

The root and swap partitions are LVM volumes. The boot partition is a standard ext4 partition. This is the default set of

partitions used should you skip manual partitioning.

The side pane lists the partitions, showing the device name and size. The right pane shows configuration for a

selected partition. It displays the name, mountpoint, label, size, device type, file system, and encryption option. You

can make changes to any of the entries and click the Apply Changes button to change the configuration (no changes

are actually made to the hard disk until you begin the software installation).

If you are reviewing after default partitioning, the hard disk partitions set up for you are displayed. The pane will

show the specific partitions that will be created for your system. The default partitioning will set up an ext4 partition to

be used as the boot partition. This is a small partition holding on the Linux kernel and boot configuration information

(/boot directory). An LVM physical volume will also be created on which an LVM logical group and volumes will be

set up. The LVM logical group will be listed at the top under LVM Volume Groups. The volume group used for the

default configuration will have a name like fedora. You can edit these entries and change the names to ones you

prefer by clicking the Modify button.

Recommended Partitions

If you are manually creating your partitions, you are required to set up at least two Linux partitions: a swap partition

and a root partition. The root partition is where the Linux system and application files are installed. In addition, it is

recommended that you also set up a boot partition that would contain just your Linux kernel (/boot directory), and a

home partition that would hold all user files. Separating system files on the root and boot partitions from the user files

on the home partition allows you to replace the system files—should they become corrupt—without touching the user

files. Similarly, if just your kernel becomes corrupt, you have to replace only the kernel files on your boot partition,

leaving the system files on the root partition untouched.

If you are using LVM partitions, as the default setup does, you would need at least two physical partitions, one for

the boot partition and the other for the LVM physical partition. The /boot directory needs its own partition because

you cannot boot from an LVM partition. The boot partition will hold the kernel. An LVM partition works something

like a extended partition in which you can then set up several logical partitions, called logical volumes. In the default

set up, two logical volumes (partitions), one for the root and the other for the swap, are set up on a single physical

LVM partition (pv). In Figure 24, the LVM Volume Groups entry shows the default root and swap logical volumes.

This strategy of separating system directories into different partitions can be carried further to ensure a more

robust system. For example, the /var directory, which now holds web and FTP server files, can be assigned its own

partition, physically separating the servers from the rest of your system. The /usr directory, which holds most user

applications, can be placed in its own partition and then be shared and mounted by other systems. One drawback to

this strategy is that you need to know ahead of time the maximum space you want to use for each partition. For system

and kernel files, this can be easily determined, but for directories whose disk usage can change dramatically, such as

/home, /var, and even /usr, this can be difficult to determine.

As an alternative to creating separate physical partitions for each directory, you can use logical volumes. A basic

partition configuration is shown here:

Except for the swap partition, when setting up a Linux partition, you must specify a mountpoint. A mountpoint

is a directory where the files on that partition are connected to the overall Linux file structure for your system. The

mountpoint for your root partition is the root directory, represented by a single slash (/). The mountpoint for your

boot partition is the path /boot. For a user’s partition, it’s /home.

The size of the swap partition should be the same as your RAM memory, with a recommended minimum size of

64MB. With 4GB of RAM, you should use a 4GB swap partition.

Creating Partitions

To create a new partition, click the plus button to display the Add a New Mount Point dialog, where you can choose

the mountpoint and the size. Mountpoints begin the slash, /. If you enter a slash, a drop-down menu appears under

the Mount Point text box. The common mountpoints for file systems are /, /boot, /home, /usr, and /var. If you have a

root and boot system already configured, only the /home, /usr, and /var entries appear.

The new partition appears on the Manual Partitioning screen. Select it to configure the partition. You can set the

size (in megabytes), the device type, and the file system type. For the device type, you have the choice of a Standard

Partition, BTRFS, Software RAID, and LVM. For Software RAID, you can create RAID partitions and RAID devices to

which you can assign RAID partitions. For LVM, you can create Logical Volumes (logical partitions to which physical

partitions are assigned), and a Volume Group (the group to which logical volumes are assigned). Physical volumes are

set up for you.

There are several kinds of file systems supported during installation—ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, btrfs, xfs, and vfat.

The ext2 and ext3 partitions are older forms of the Linux standard partition type, ext4.

To make configuration changes to any partition, select it, make the changes to its entries, and click the Apply

Changes button.

Logical Volumes

Fedora supports Logical Volume Management (LVM), which enables you to create logical volumes that you can use

instead of using hard disk partitions directly. LVM provides a more flexible and powerful way of dealing with disk

storage, organizing physical partitions into logical volumes in which memory can be managed easily. Disk storage for

a logical volume is treated as one pool of memory, though the volume may in fact contain several hard disk partitions

on different hard disks. There is one restriction. The boot partition cannot be a logical volume. You still have to create

a separate hard disk partition as your boot partition with the /boot mountpoint in which your kernel will be installed.

If you selected default partitioning, the /boot partition will have already been set up for you, along with an LVM

volume partition for the rest of the system. A logical group will be set up with volumes for both the swap and root

partitions. The logical group will be labeled with a name like fedora. You can change these names by editing the

logical group and volumes during installation. Click the Modify button to the right of the volume group entry.

Creating logical volumes is now a simple process of specifying the LVM device type and the volume group. The

physical LVM partitions that logical volumes are based on are generated automatically by Fedora. For a particular

LVM partition (logical volume), you will have a Volume Group entry where you can specify the volume group it

belongs to.

RAID and BTRFS

You also have the option of creating RAID devices. Such devices are for use with the Linux software RAID service,

and are shouldn’t be used for your motherboard or computer’s RAID devices. If you have already decided to use the

motherboard RAID support, you do not need Software RAID. Linux supports both motherboard/computer RAID

devices (DMRAID) as well as its own Linux software RAID. The RAID option is visible only if you have selected two or

more hard disks.

BTRFS is the new file system format, still under development. If operates much like RAID devices, providing

RAID0 (stripe), RAID (mirrors), and RAID10 (optimization) levels of support. You create BTRFS sub-volumes, and the

installer creates the BTRFS volume for you.

Software Installation Configuration with the Fedora Install DVD/CDs

If you are installing from the Install DVD or the set of Install CDs, you have a more detailed and complex set of

software package install options (see Figure 25). The Fedora Install DVD currently supports several pre-selection

install environments, including the popular desktops, development workstation, web and infrastructure servers,

and a minimal install. The desktop environments are GNOME, KDE, Xfce, LXDE, and Sugar. For each environment

there are different sets of add-ons that you can choose from. For GNOME, you can add the design suite, LibreOffice,

and development tools. KDE includes KDE Office and KDE multimedia support. The Development and Creative

Workstation has Design Suite, MySQL, and PostgreSQL databases, and programming tools such as Perl, Python, PHP,

Ruby, and GCC. You can choose only one environment, but for any given environment, you can include as many

add-ons as you wish.

Network Configuration with the Fedora Install DVD/CDs

If you are installing from the Install DVD or the set of Install CDs, you can also configure your network connection.

Click the Network icon on the Installation Summary page to open the Network Configuration dialog (see Figure 26).

Your connections are listed and your hostname is shown below the connection listing. Information for a selected

connection appears on the right side. A switch lets you turn the connection on or off. Click the Configure button to

open an Editing dialog (Network Manager), where you can change connection configuration with tabs for the device,

security, and IPv4 and IPv6 settings

GRUB on Restart

When you reboot, a GRUB bootloader briefly displays a start-up message indicating which operating system on your

disk will be started. The default is usually your Linux system. If Fedora is the only operating system on your system,

GRUB will skip the start-up message and the GRUB menu access and start Fedora immediately. Fedora 18 uses

GRUB2. You can find out more about GRUB2 at:

http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/GRUB_2

If you have encrypted your hard disk partitions, you are then prompted to enter the LUKS passphrase for them. A

standard installation will prompt for the same passphrase for your swap and root partitions on your LVM file system.

The prompt will use the physical partition name used for the LVM group, in this example /dev/sda2. There are two

prompts—one for the LVM volume for the root file system, and one for the LVM volume swap file system.

The startup screen then shows the progress of your boot procedures. If your graphics card supports kernel mode

settings, the Plymouth boot-up screen will be displayed; otherwise, a simple progress bar is shown. You can press the

ESC key to see start-up messages.

Setting Up Fedora

The first time you start Fedora, the Setup Agent runs (see Figure 27). This agent will help you do a basic

configuration of your system, letting you set the date and time, configure your firewall, and set up user accounts. The

different steps are listed on a side pane, with an arrow progressing through each one as you complete a task. Click the

Forward button to continue to the next screen. You are initially asked to approve the GNU General Public License for

this distribution. The steps are listed here:

Welcome

License Information

Create User

Date and Time

Create User

The Create User screen lets you create a normal user account (see Figure 28). You should have at least one account

other than root. A dialog box shows entries for the username, the user’s full name, the password, and the password

confirmation. Once you have entered the information and clicked Forward, the new user is created.

You can also select LDAP, Winbind, Hesiod, or NIS to configure a user’s network login process. Click the Use

Network Login button. Here you can configure the servers. This starts the system-config-authentication. Use this if

your network supports the authentication server. Three tabs are displayed: User Information, Authentication, and

Options. On the User Information tab, you can enable and configure LDAP, Kerberos, Winbind, and SMB (Samba)

authentication. On the Authentication tab, you can enable and configure support for each, specifying NIS, LDAP,

Smart Card, Kerberos, or SMB servers that your network may use. The Options tab lists support for password

authentication.

To specify more configuration details for the user, such as the user directory or user ID, click the Advanced button

to open the User Manager window. From there, you can click the Add User button to enter user information in the

Add New User dialog.

Date and Time

The date and time is detected and displayed. You can then adjust it as needed (see Figure 29). You also have the

option to use the Network Time Protocol from a time server.

Upgrading Fedora Linux

You can only upgrade an existing Fedora 17 system to Fedora 18. If you have Fedora 16, you have to upgrade to

Fedora 17 first. Be sure to back up your system, including the home, etc, and boot directories. The older methods of

upgrading—preupgrade and the Install DVD—are no longer supported and do not work. Instead you can use FedUp,

which upgrades either from the repositories (like preupgrade) or from a DVD (like the Install DVD). You can find out

more about FedUp at:

http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/FedUp

FedUp downloads all the packages for the new distribution in the background, allowing you to continue to use

your system. The updated versions of these packages are downloaded, providing the most recent package versions.

Be sure to first update your software. When you restart your system, the downloaded packages are installed.

On a Fedora 17 system, install the fedup package. This installs the FedUp client, via the fedup-cli command.

You run this command from a terminal window as the root user. Open a terminal window, use the su command to log

in as the root user, and then enter the fedup-cli command specifying a network (--network), iso (--iso), or device

(--device) source. The --network option downloads from the Fedora repository. You need to specify only the version,

such as 18 for Fedora 18. For --iso, you can use an ISO DVD image file instead. For --device, you reference a

DVD-ROM containing a Fedora Install DVD. The --network option is recommended as this provides you with the

most recent updates from the Fedora repository.

For a --network update, enter the following commands.

su

fedup-cli --network 18

The repositories are located and then the packages are downloaded. You can interrupt the download at any

time and restart it later. The download will start up from where it left off, after verifying that those packages already

downloaded.

Should you use a device, you specify its mount directory. This is usually the /var/run directory, the name of the

user, and the name of the DVD, such as “Fedora 18 x86_64.” The DVD mount directory name has spaces, so enclose

the entire mound directory in quotes. The following upgrades from a DVD mounted by the user Richard.

fedup-cli --device "/var/run/richard/Fedora 18 x86_64"

For a download ISO file, specify the full pathname of the ISO file. The full pathname for an ISO file in a user

directory begins with /home and the name of the user. Include the full name of the ISO file. The following upgrades

from the Fedora DVD 64-bit ISO file located in the user Richard’s Download directory.

fedup-cli --iso /home/richard/Download/Fedora-18-x86_64-DVD.iso

GRUB is not upgraded by the upgrade process. You have to reinstall and upgrade GRUB2 manually. See the

section on re-installing the bootloader that follows. Also check the GRUB2 page, and, for UEFI systems, see the FedUp

page for instructions.

http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/GRUB_2

Creating Boot Disks

You can use mkbootdisk to create a boot CD-ROM. Use the --iso option and the --device option with the name of

an ISO image file to create (install the mkbootdisk package). You then use CD-ROM-burning software to create the

CD-ROM from the image file. The following example creates a CD-ROM image file called mybootcd.iso that can be

used as a boot CD-ROM.


mkbootdisk --iso --device mybootcd.iso

3.7.4-204.fc18.x86_64


Booting in Rescue Mode

If you are not able to boot or access your system, it may be due to conflicting configurations, libraries, or applications.

In this case, you can boot your Linux system in a rescue mode and then edit configuration files with a text editor,

remove the suspect libraries, or reinstall damaged software with yum. To enter the rescue mode, run the Fedora

DVD-ROM and then select Rescue a Fedora System from the Troubleshooting menu.

You will boot into the command-line mode with your system’s files mounted at /mnt/sysimage. You will be

notified that you can use the chroot command to set the / directory as the root. Issue the following command at the

command-line prompt:

chroot /mnt/sysimage

Use the cd command to move between directories. Check /etc and /etc/sysconfig for your configuration

files. You can use vi to edit your files and the less command to view them. To reinstall files, use the yum install

command. When you are finished, use the exit command.

If you have a command-line system, enter the following at the boot prompt

linux rescue

Re-Installing the Bootloader

If you have a dual-boot system, where you are running Windows and Linux on the same machine, you may run into

a situation where you have to re-install your GRUB bootloader. This problem occurs if you installed a new version of

Windows after installing Linux. Windows will automatically overwrite your bootloader (alternatively, you could install

your bootloader on your Linux partition instead of the MBR). You will no longer be able to access your Linux system.

All you need to do is to reinstall your bootloader. First boot from your Fedora Install DVD installation disk (not

the Live DVD). From the Troubleshooting menu, select Rescue a Fedora System.

As noted in the preceding section, this boots your system in rescue mode. Then use grub2-install and the

device name of your first partition to install the bootloader. At the prompt, enter

grub-install /dev/sda1

This will re-install your current GRUB bootloader, assuming that Windows is included in the GRUB configuration.

You can then reboot, and the GRUB bootloader will start up.

You then have to create a new configuration file (/boot/grub2/grub.cfg) using the grub2-mkconfig command.

grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

If your Linux rescue disks are unable to access your system, you can use a Fedora Live DVD to start up Fedora,

and then manually mount your Fedora partitions. You will need to know your partition device names (use GParted).

Once they are mounted, you can access the system files on the mounted partition and make any needed changes.

Conclusion

I hope this tutorial will help you.If you have any question or suggestion and sorry for the low quality images I don't know which software is good to take screen short of high quality images.If you have know the software drop a comment.Thank you.

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