ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Manufacturing Processes - CNC Single Point Cutting Process

Updated on October 15, 2014

Single Point Cutting

Single point cutting fits in the category of machining as a manufacturing process. It involves the removal of metal from a workpiece using cutting tools that only have one primary cutting edge.

Typical Examples

  • Cylindrical turning on a lathe
  • Facing on a vertical boring machine
  • Internal boring on a horizontal boring machine or lathe
  • Planning
  • Shaping
  • Trepanning

Single point cutting using standard tools and equipment is a good option for the production of small batches and 1 off items such as prototypes. Machines are flexible and can be used for the production of a large range of components without the need for dedicated tooling. Basic set up costs are relatively low.

High quality components can be produced through the management of feed rate, speed, depth of cut, cutting angles and tool types used. The skill and experience of the machine operator is also an important factor although the recent adoption of CNC machining for almost all types of single point cutting has moved the skills required to machine set up and programming rather than machine operation. This means that a manufacturer can hire less skilled labour to run the machines once the equipment has been set up for operation.

Most metals and polymers can be machined using single point cutting and it also possible to machine some ceramics. Cuttings form the majority of the material waste and they are typically quite difficult to recycle mainly due to contamination from lubricants and some changes in the microstructure as a result of the machining process which uses a shearing action for material removal. This as you can imagine will generate significant levels of stress and strains at the cutting edge.

Hardened or toughened materials can slow down cycle times and consideration needs to be given to tool wear if machining at high process rates for material removal. A basic requirement of a single point cutting tool is that it is harder than the material being cut, but even in that event there will be tool wear. The consequence of this is a need for frequent resharpening of the cutting edge and ultimately the tool may need to be replaced.

Another factor to consider when using a single point cutting tool is the generation of heat energy; mainly as a result of the primary shear taking place as the material is removed. A large proportion of this heat goes with the resulting material chip but there will still be a residual amount that stays with the parent material. This is why coolants are widely used in the single point cutting process. They typically also provide a secondary benefit of acting as cutting lubricants.

What are the optimum characteristics of Single Point Cutting Tools

  • hardness even at high temperatures
  • toughness
  • chemically inert
  • resistant to wear

These characteristics have traditionally been found through the adoption of carbon and low alloy steels, although they did have a tendency to wear a little too easily. Being relatively easy to sharpen offset this problem to an extent but there was a clear need for further development of tooling which could perform better.

High speed steels provided an initial solution to the wear problem, which was mainly brought about as a result of high temperatures being present while machining that would have an adverse effect on the low alloy steels. The high speed steels are still considered to be an affordable and effective choice for cutting most materials, but more recently there has been an adoption of cemented carbide inserts.

Cemented carbide tips are used in conjunction with tool holders and are normally supplied in a triangular geometry which can now be rotated in the holder to provide a new cutting tip when it does wear simply by loosening a retaining screw and clamp. Early designs used brazing to secure the carbide tip in its holder which, for obvious reasons, made continued use of the tip after wear impractical.

Further improvements in wear resistance came in the form of ceramic coatings that could be used on both high speed steels and cemented carbide tools. Diamond is another cutting tool material but is pretty much limited to low temperature applications, despite it being the hardest known material available.

Single Point Cutting Tools

Image provide by Wikipedia, March 2008 and used here under the Creative Commons license ref: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en
Image provide by Wikipedia, March 2008 and used here under the Creative Commons license ref: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en

Single Point Cutting Tool Use in CNC Turning

Multiple Point Cutting

The principles of multiple point cutting tools is much the same as for single point cutting tools but with the obvious difference of having more than one major cutting edge. They are used to remove material from metals, polymers and also some ceramics and composites.

Typical Multiple Point Cutting Tools

  • Surface milling cutters
  • Slot cutters
  • Dovetail cutters
  • Form cutters
  • High speed drills
  • Reamers
  • Broaches

Most modern machines utilise standard milling cutters on CNC milling machines that are non dedicated. In other words they are set up and programmed on a job by job basis and can be quickly changed around to suit small batch or individual component production requirements such as prototype work. Producing 1 off articles isn't absolutely ideal due to the need to write supporting CNC programs. An exception to this statement might be if once a prototype has been produced and verified as fit for purpose, the programming code can then be utilized for further batch productions. So for high single component machining demand a better option may be standard milling machines with digital readouts.

CNC machines can of course also be used for high volume production but the machine then becomes tied up for long periods which effectively reduces flexibility.

Broaching is a slightly specialist process that is useful, for example, when producing key features in the bore of a tube, something that is difficult to do using standard machining practices.

The video below shows the level of adaptability of a CNC machine and how they can be used to produce components in 3D.

Multiple Point Cutting Tools

Single Point Cutting Tools - Your Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      c.dheena 

      3 years ago

      I need CNC programme and how to function

    • profile image

      KAZI IRFAN 

      7 years ago

      I WANT TO KNOW EVERYTHING IN DETAILS ABOUT MANUFACTURING A SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL SOMEONE PLEASE HELP ME.........

    • Technoman profile imageAUTHOR

      Technoman 

      7 years ago

      Hi cncmachine, yes just keep reading the hubs. There will be more to come.

    • cncmachine profile image

      cncmachine 

      7 years ago from Indonesia

      nice post more about Manufacturing Processes - CNC Single Point Cutting Process. can i learn with you?

    • defed profile image

      defed 

      8 years ago

      video good!!!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)