History of Motor Vehicles and its Compenents
Characterized by self-propelled, the vehicle usually has the purpose of transporting people and goods by road, to varying degrees depending on the category. On the other hand, it may not be prepared for transport: the case of certain special purpose vehicles, whose use is determined by the plant or equipment permanently installed
The construction of an industrial motor vehicles dates back to the years between the nineteenth and twentieth century, when the gasoline engine began to run on a fairly regular basis. At that time, in fact, born Fiat (1899), Mercedes-Benz (1900) and the Spear (1906).
For the realization of the gasoline were very important experiences of Nicholas Barsanti and Felice Matteucci. For the four-stroke cycle, however, proved the fundamental work of Beau de Rochas (the inventor), Nikolaus August Otto and Eugen Langen. The road to the car also received the lead thanks to a type of engine patented by Gottlieb W. Daimler and Carl F. Benz, independently of each other in 1885. The first car entirely Italian with a gasoline engine can be considered one built in 1894 by Enrico Bernardi.
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The main parts of the car are:
frame or body carrier:
İs the part intended to absorb the stresses generated by the permanent weight of the vehicle (determined by tare), the reach, the speed, acceleration or deceleration, the slope and the roughness of the road. In the automotive industry, in general, the frame consists of a pair of rails: this promotes the assembly of various types of bodies (vans, boxes, concrete mixers, tanks, etc..) Able to meet various business needs. In passenger cars, however, often the structure is made by the entire body (except some off-road);
is the body that can make self-advancement of the medium. The motors can be classified in various ways, in keeping with constructive taken as reference (petrol, diesel, Flex, duty cycle, etc..)
transmission system of the movement of the vehicle engine running:
that is, the drive shaft, clutch, gearbox, couplings, the bevel gear, differential, and finally the wheels that support the movement of the car equipped with tires;
directs the steered wheels, and then allows you to change the direction of travel;
their function is to dampen (with tires) shocks and vibrations during road use, thereby limiting the spread of passengers and goods transported;
brakes diminish or nullify the speed of the car, or keep it stationary;
the starter motor;
ignition system (battery and spark plugs for engine ignition, alternator (formerly the generator) to recharge the battery and power system with engine running).
fuel system (tank, fuel pump and air filter, air filter, carburetor and fuel injection valves);
distribution system of the engine;
lubrication system (engine oil and filter) the engine;
cooling system (fan, coolant circuit and on) the engine;
the engine exhaust system;
including the ignition and the lighting or lights, headlights, turn signals and connections with electrical wires, it depends on the direct operation of some engines, but also that of lighting, sound and visual signaling and other ancillary services.
electronic control system of the car through electronic control unit (not always present)
In automotive technology, the tare weight is the minimum mass (permanent) state of the vehicle, while the total mass at full load is the maximum attainable.
The EU directives, under which vehicles are certified, include in tare also the driver, fuel, spare wheel, lubricants and coolant. In essence, the vehicle is considered "running order" that is ready to go.
The total mass, however, is determined by the manufacturer and confirmed during testing. This value is entered in the field F.2 of the registration certificate (in the second box). The difference between the total mass and the tare identifies the scope, ie the maximum mass of persons and goods transported by the vehicle. Apart from the total mass, not always the data on the registration certificate in order to obtain with certainty the actual extent of the medium. To determine, therefore, should usually weigh the car-load (no load) and subtract the resulting number by the total mass. During the traffic load and people should be placed in the most correct, based on the construction of the car and with rules laid down by the highway code. Each vehicle contains a very significant and characteristic data on the type of vehicle: the maximum weights allowed for each axis. These values are of fundamental importance in the planning stage in the assembly and testing phase at the time of testing in a single copy of the vehicle.
Calculation of the maximum weight per axle
Suppose you need to construct a vehicle with 2 axles, with a total weight of 18 000 kg and maximum weights allowed (data type) is equal to 7,500 kg on the 1st axis and 12 000 kg on the 2nd axis. We intend to combine a hydraulic crane behind the cab and a fixed body. Simplify the scheme assuming the vehicle as a beam on two supports located at a distance equal to pitch p (distance between 1 º and 2 º axis) and apply forces at the 1 º and 2 º support, these forces are respectively the weight (reported on 'approval) of the vehicle on 1 º and 2 º axis axis (T1, T2).
The sum will be equal to the total tare weight of the vehicle frame. Apply a crane located behind the cockpit, and this will have a tare weight, Tg, and a well-defined center of mass. Consequently apply a downward force (Tg) on the beam equal to the tare weight of the crane and at a distance equal to that between the center of gravity of this and the first axis (xg). Now we apply the physical body that will not start until after the crane (the distance between 1 st and early body axis, known as xd, and will end on the rear overhang of the vehicle (called the z-axis distance between the 2nd and the end of the box).The box will appear on our scheme as a distributed load (a load that is continuous and uniform intensity q along the beam) having a length equal to the physical length of the body W, and center of gravity placed on half the length W / 2. The center of gravity compared to the 1st axis (which we will use as the fulcrum) will be at a distance (xw) is equal to the sum of (t + W / 2). The distributed load q has a value equal to the following equation: q = total mass - (T1 + T2 + Tg).
The pattern of forces is therefore complete and consists of the tare of the vehicle in two axes, the tare weight of the crane and the reach on the box (for now not interested in knowing the weight of the structure of the chest x meters). Therefore placing the focus on the 1st axis and solving the pattern of forces with the equilibrium method of forces and moments, you get two reactions on 2 supports, and these values must be less than the maximum weights allowed.
Example taking the initial data:
Vehicle 2 axis p = 3 800 mm, Mtoto = 18000 kg, Pmax = 7500 kg 1 º, 2 º Pmax = 12 000, Tara axle = 4100 kg T1, T2 = 3 200 kg
Crane weighing 1 500 kg and center of gravity from 1 to 700 mm shaft
Body with a length of 4800 mm, and the beginning of 1 000 mm from the first axis. Therefore, the cog of the body (and the residual capacity) located at: 1000 + (4800 / 2) = 3400 mm
It determines the value of force applied to the body residual capacity = 18 000 + - (4100 + 3200 + 1500) = 9200 kg.
By applying and solving the pattern of forces made up by the force of the crane (1 500 kg to 700 mm from 1 axis), the residual capacity + Skip (9200 kg to 3 400 mm from 1 axis) and tares of 4 100 kg on the 1st and 3200 kg on the 2 nd the result is equal to 6 292 <7 500 kg on the 1st axis and 11 708 <12 000 kg on the 2nd axis. Were respected heavyweight allowed, so the vehicle has been properly designed.
This tells us that if we chose too heavy a crane would run the risk of making too heavy on 1 axis. Too short a body would have the same effect. A body too long with too light a crane would probably lean, the 2nd axis. It should be noted that this is the test vehicle at full load.
The vehicle can be out even under vacuum, thus spreading the axles all the TARE (TARE axes, cranes, dump), less the residual capacity. One example is a vehicle with a crane too heavy behind the cab and a body very long with load center called the negative (when exactly half of the box is behind the 2nd axis, the center of gravity positive when it is between the axles , center of gravity is perfectly neutral when at the 2nd axis). In the case of negative gravity and heavy cranes over the vehicle can stay within the maximum weight load, while to load, due to the breakdown of the scope that has the effect of reducing the 1st axis, is below the limit. For these reasons, at the time of the project and the time of drafting the technical report for testing in a single copy through the engine, the vehicle must comply with the maximum weights allowed to empty and fully loaded (along with other parameters such as minimum ratios to load and no-load, check the chassis, checking against frames applied, make sure all parts subject to wear and tear occurs in the gauge, warning lights verification, verification of cycler guard and underride and other checks).
Three procedures in order to move
Each vehicle to be deemed suitable for road use, must be subject to inspection and testing by the Department of Land Transport or by a certifying authority of the European Union (such as TÜV, DEKRA, Luxcontrol, etc.).. The term "inspection and testing" means a combination of engineering controls and document that the authority or the competent body should play in ensuring public safety when the vehicle is used. These inspections may be carried
for testing in a single copy
The approval allows the manufacturer to produce a series of car identical to the prototype tested. Each of the models produced can be registered directly with documents supplied by the factory. The test results in a single copy of the controls, although rigorous, are not normally articulated as in the approval. It uses this procedure, usually when there is no need to mass-produce identical copies of. Many commercial vehicles and commercial work (set up with boxes, trucks and equipment such as loaders, cranes or tail lifts) have been involved in a test of this type to be declared fit for circulation. With the revision, then, is periodically verified that the car still retains all the eligibility requirements for the movement, previously established through testing or approval in a single copy. This is a procedure applicable only to vehicles already in circulation and unmodified. Currently, the review can be done either in the branch offices of the Department of Land Transport, both in private centers of auditors, for vehicles weighing up to 3.5 maximum allowed to 16 people max.