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Nested Structures : Structures within Structures

Updated on December 27, 2009

Structures can be implemented with functions and arrays. Moreover, structures can be implemented as the member of other structure. This is termed as structure within structure.  

When a structure is decleared as the member of another structue, it is called Structure within a structure. It is also known as nested structure.

Example of nested structure

One example of nested structure is given below:

struct date{
	// members of structure
        int day;
	int month;
	int year;
};

struct company{
	char name[20];
	long int employee_id;
	char sex[5];
	int age;
	struct date dob;};

Write a program which can collect employee information (such as employee name, id, sex, date of birth etc.) of a company and display the collected information t

#include<iostream.h>
#include<string.h>
#define MAX 1000

// structure block defination
struct date{
	// members of structure definition
	int day;
	int month;
	int year;
};

struct company{
	char name[20];
	long int employee_id;
	char sex[5];
	int age;
	// nested block defination
	struct date dob;
};

// structuer object defination
company employee[MAX];
// main function starts
int main(){
	company employee[MAX];
	int n;
	cout << "A program for collecting employee information";
	cout << endl;
	cout << "And displaying the collected information";
	cout << endl << endl;
	cout << "How many employees:";
	cin >> n;
	cout << endl;
	// functions defination
	void CollectInformtion(company employee[MAX], int n);
	void Display(company employee[MAX], int n);
	
	// functions calling
	CollectInformtion(employee, n);
	Display(employee, n);
	cin.get();
	return 0;
}
// collecting information form the user
void CollectInformtion(company employee[MAX], int n){
	cout << "Enter the following information:";
	cout << endl << endl;
	
	for (int i=1; i<=n; i++){
		cout << "Enter information for employee no: " << i;
		cout << endl;
		cout << "Name   :"; cin >> employee[i].name;
		cout << "ID     :"; cin >> employee[i].employee_id;
		cout << "Sex    :"; cin >> employee[i].sex;
		cout << "Age    :"; cin >> employee[i].age;
		cout << "Date of Birth:" << endl;
		cout << "Day    :";	cin >> employee[i].dob.day;
		cout << "Month  :"; cin >> employee[i].dob.month;
		cout << "Year   :";	cin >> employee[i].dob.year;
		
		cout << endl;
	}
}
// displaying entered information to the standard output
void Display(company employee[MAX], int n){
	cout << "Employee entered information:";
	cout << endl;
	cout << "Name	ID	Sex	Age	Date of Birth" << endl;
	for (int i=1; i<=n; i++){
		cout << employee[i].name		<< "\t";
		cout << employee[i].employee_id << "\t";
		cout << employee[i].sex; cout	<< "\t";
		cout << employee[i].age; cout	<< "\t";
		cout << employee[i].dob.day		<< ".";
		cout << employee[i].dob.month   << ".";
		cout << employee[i].dob.year    ;
		
		cout << endl;
	}
}


Output of the program

Output of the program
Output of the program

Discussion of the above program

At first, the graphical representation of the program is given below:

Graphical representation of the structure
Graphical representation of the structure

So, the code block will be:

struct date{
	// members of structure
        int day;
	int month;
	int year;
};
struct company{
	char name[20];
	long int employee_id;
	char sex[5];
	int age;
	struct date dob;
};
 

Look "struct date dob;" is used to link the nested structure.

To initialize the values in nested structue it uses like the followings:

employee[i].dob.day;
employee[i].dob.month;
employee[i].dob.year;

The program has two functions:

void CollectInformtion(company employee[MAX], int n);
void Display(company employee[MAX], int n);
 

Function "CollectInformtion()" is used to take inputs from the users.And function "Display()" is used to display the final output. 

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    • profile image

      rahul 4 years ago

      ghant jevo chhe easy lakh

    • profile image

      sam 5 years ago

      cool program

    • profile image

      misbah 5 years ago

      thanks but can u expalin more deeply and easily

    • profile image

      kilo 5 years ago

      nested structure beautifully explained awesome Thanx!! :)

    • profile image

      Saad 6 years ago

      There is one problem in program.

      If the user enters Date of Birth, the program should itself give his/her age.

    • profile image

      nehai 6 years ago

      this program is of date. cool

    • profile image

      raj 6 years ago

      i want the program of date of birthday.

      means user give date and month and year. the program print the day.

    • profile image

      san 7 years ago

      hm.tats.....good

    • profile image

      kaye 7 years ago

      uhm hi! good day.

      i just want to ask..

      our programming starts with:

      #include

      #include

      is it possible that this will work ?

      my programming language is c++ also.

      but i'm using microsoft visual studio.

      well. that's it. :)

      thank you for your time reading this. :)

    • rancidTaste profile image
      Author

      rancidTaste 7 years ago

      Thanks diya..for your comment. I solved that.

    • profile image

      diya 7 years ago

      there is a mistake in thid program.its not death of birth.its date of birth

    • profile image

      zampano 8 years ago

      Hi, man.

      I appreciate very much the art and aesthetics of your program. Quite nice use of C++.

      It's nice also to have a fancy user interface and store data in a database.

      keep on.