ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Technology»
  • Computers & Software

Problems with the application of a distributed system

Updated on May 19, 2012

Recommend Books for information about transparency in distributed systems

Types of transparency in distributed systems

In distributed systems there are number of forms of transparency that pose potential problems for distributed applications. In total there are eight main, important types of distribution transparency.

Here is some basic information in simple terms regarding transparency in distributed systems and the main eight types of transparency in distributed applications.


Access Transparency

Access transparency in distributed systems means that local and remote objects should be able to be accessed with the same operations. Basically, the user should be unaware that the object is local or remote.


Location Transparency

Location Transparency in distributed applications and distributed systems means that objects should be able to be accessed without knowledge of their particular location. Location transparency is present in a number of communication types such as multicasting communication. (don't worry if you are unfamiliar with multicasting communication).


Replication transparency

Replication transparency in distributed systems and distributed operating systems means that multiple copies of objects should be able to be created without any effect of the replication being seen by applications that use the objects. Basically, in a distributed system all copies of replicated data or files should be maintained so they are all the same so that if an operation is peformed on them the same result will always be given.


Concurrency transparency

Concurrency transparency in distrbuted operating systems and applications means that concurrent processes should be able to use shared objects without problem or interference. This is one of the biggest issues and problems present in distributed computing because concurreny access to files and data raises the issue of data consistency (i.e if more than one user/client tries to simultaneously update the same file or data).


Migration transparency

Migration transparency in distributed applications and distributed operating systems means that objects should be able to be moved without affecting the operation of applications that use them.


Failure transparency

Failure transparency is probably one of the most obvious problems and issues with distributed systems. It means that faults that occur during operation are concealed so that it can still continue without knowledge that a fault has occured. This is where ELECTION ALGORITHMS becomes important in distributed systems. REFER TO MY OTHER HUB ON ELECTION ALGORITHMS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS FOR MORE INFORMATION.


Performance transparency

Performance transparency means that the performance of a distributed system should degrade gracefully as the system load increases. Basically, the distributed system should work just as well if 200 people are using it as when 2 people are using it.


Scaling transparency

Scaling transparency within distributed operating systems means that it should be possible to scale up the application/system without needing to change any of the structure or algorithms that are used.


An example of replication transparency issues in distributed systems

If a person uses a credit card at a cash machine to withdrawl money then this will update their bank account balance. Banks will obviously have multiple copies/backups of this persons bank account data and the persons balance.

When does the bank update the backup copies of the persons bank balance so that they have all of the same information?

If these back up copies are not all updated so they have the same information once the persons balance has changed, if the banks main copy of the persons balance information fails and a backup copy needs to be used that has not been correctly updated yet, this will mean the person could effectively get 'free' money as the recent withdraw from the cash machine will not have been recorded.


I realise some of this may be slighlty confusing and new to some people not familiar with different issues with transparency distributed systems and distributed operating systems, so if you have any questions, don't hesitate to ask or comment.


VOTE

Was this information about transparency in distributed systems detailed enough?

See results

Useful Books for further reading and information about distributed systems

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)