- Computers & Software
कम्प्युटर अपरेटरको पद सम्बन्धी सुचना
पुर्वाञ्चल क्षेत्रीय निर्देशनालय,धनकुटा
मध्यमाञ्चल क्षेत्रीय निर्देशनालय,कमलपोखरी
पशि्माञ्चल क्षेत्रीय निर्देशनालय,पोखरा
मध्यपशि्माञ्चल क्षेत्रीय निर्देशनालय,सुर्खेत
सुदुरपशि्माञ्चल क्षेत्रीय निर्देशनालय,दिपायल
Computer fundamental Qustion
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Fundamental of computer
Computer : Definition, History, Generation, Characteristics, Types & Applications
Overview of a computer system:-
Data and data processing
Definition of Hardware
Input unit-Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, etc.
CPU-Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit (CU), Memory Unit,
Output Unit :- Monitor, Printer, etc.
Storage devices :- Primary & Auxiliary Memory (Floppy Disk, Hard Disk,
Compact Disk, Super Disks, Zip Disks, Cartridge tape, etc)
Other:- Network card, Modem, Sound card, etc.
Definition & Types of Software
Setting & Protection of Computer Room and Computer
Concept of Computer Viruses and Remedies
Concept of Multimedia
Introduction to Networking
Types of Network like LAN, MAN, WAN
Setting Up Microsoft Network
The term "Computer has been derived from Latin word Computare" which means – calculate. Similarly, in English language Calculate means to do mathematical operation. So, A computer is an Electronic device which accepts raw data, instruction form the user through input devices and by processing them in CPU gives the result through different kinds of Output Media.
Compose of Component work together is called System.
Every component for example User, Hardware,Software, work together at that we called it System.
HISTORY OF COMPUTER
Early counting methods
Early there were no Counting device and people had no knowledge of Counting. As development began to proceed, people uses to keep cattle for their domestic use. The people then used their fingers for counting but limited no. of fingers were not succeed so, they started to use stones (pebbles) for counting their animals.
The number(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) which we are using are also called HIndu-Arabic numbers. In 12th century this number were introduced in Europe by Leonardo Pisano. 0 was developed in INDIA.
some of the Early counting devices are as follows:
- AN ABACUS(1000-1500 A.D.)
- NAPIER'S BONE AND LOGARITHM(1614)
- SLIDE RULE (1620)
- PASCAL AND HIS ADDING MACHINE
- LEIBNIZ' CALCULATING MACHINE
- DIFFERENTIAL ENGINE
- DIFFERENCE ENGINE(Charles Babbage
- Punch Card (Herman Hollerith)
HISTORICAL YEAR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
- In 1617 John Napier invented Napier's bone.
- In 1622 Slide rule was invented by William Oughtred.
- In 1642 Pascaline or Pascal's Calculator was invented by Blaise Pascal.
- In 1673 Leibniz's calculator was invented by Wilhelm Von Leibniz.
- In 1801 Punch card was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard.
- In 1821 Difference Engines was invented by Charles Babbage.
- In 1837 Analytical Engine was developed by Charles Babbage.
- In 1840 Boolean algebra was invented by George Boole.
- In 1936, first freely programmable computer was developed.
- In 1944, the Harvard Mark I computer was developed.
- In 1953 IBM enters in the History of Computer.
- In 1954 FOR TAN, the first High level Language was developed.
- In 1955, the bank of America and others started to use MICR for reading a cheques.
- In 1956 Hard disk was invented by IBM team led by Reynolds Johnson.
- In 1962 the first Computer game was invented.
- In 1964 mouse was invented.
- In 1965 Mini computer was invented by Kenneth H. Olsen
- In 1969, the original internet ARPANET was found.
- In 1970 Bubble Memory was developed by Andrew Bobeck.
- In 1970 the first Dram was developed by Intel company.
- In 1971 Intel company developed the first Intel 4004 Microprocessor.
- In 1971 IBM introduced first Floppy disk
- In 1975 Microcomputer was developed by Ed Roberts.
- In 1975 Microsoft corporation was established by Bill gates and Paul Allen.
- In 1976 the first Super Computer Cray-1 was developed.
- In 1979 the first Laptop was developed by William Moggridge.
- In 1979 Word processor software was developed.
- In 1981, IBM introduced new revolution in a box, the personal computer with a brand new operating system form Microsoft, a 16 bit computer operating sysem called Ms-Dos 1.0.
- In 1983 The first home computer with a GUI, Apple Lisa Computer was created.
- In 1985 Microsoft Launches the first GUI Ms-windows for IBM Computers.
- In 1985 Microsoft began friendly war with Apple.
- In 1985 Microsoft developed it's first window "windows 85".
- In 1991 World Wide Web was developed by Tim Berner Lee and released by Cern.
- In 1993 the first web browser called Mosaic was created by Marc Andresen and programmer Eric Bina at NCSA.
- In 1996 Intel company introduced pro(x 86) Microprocessor.
- In 1997 Intel Company introduced Pentium II
- In 1999 Intel Company Introduced Pentium III.
- In 2000 Intel Company introduced Pentium IV.
- In 2005 Intel Company introduced The 64 bit Dual core Processor.
Generation of computer
What is generation?
It has been identified that there are five major stages in the continuous development process of computer. These stages are called computer generation.
1. First generation computer (1946-1955)
They were very large slow and had less internal storage capacity. (e.g. UNIVAC made of vacuum tube i.e. also work by vacuum scald)
- Technology used- vacuum tubes
- Input- Punched cards
- Output- Punched cards
- Language- Machine Language
- Storage- Punched Paper Tape
2. Second generation computer (1956-1965)
The transistors replaced the vacuum tubs of 1st generation it was great revolution in the field of electronics. In that period scientist developed magnetic tape and magnetic disk. They were small faster and storage large number of data.
- Technology used- Transistor
- Input- Punched cards
- Output- Paper
- Language- Assembly Language
- Storage- Magnetic core
3. Third generation computer (1965-1975)
Computer was integrated circuit (IC). An IC is an electronic circuit with a large numbers of components built on a small silicon chip. RAMs and ROMs also made in this generation. They had high memory capacity.
- Technology used- Integrated Circuits
- Input- keyboard
- Output- Monitor
- Language- High Level Language
- Storage- Disk storage
4. Fourth generation computer (1975-1990)
The development of VHSI (very high scale integration) circuits, very high speed integrated circuits and microprocessor enhanced the performance of 4th generation computer improved speed memory size and packing system, CPU and other devices are packed into a single chip developed personal computer.
- Technology used- VLSI, Microprocessor
- Input- Mouse, Keyboard,etc
- Output- Monitor,etc
- Language- High levelLanguage
- Storage- Hard disk etc
5. Fifth generation computer (1991-present)
After 1990 a new generation of computers called 5th generation. Leading countries for these computers are Japan and USA. They have been undertaking different projects to design 5th generation computer. The special characteristics of 5th generation would be:
- Use intelligent programming
- Use high performance multiprocessor system
- Have easy human-computer interfaces
- Use knowledge-based problem solving techniques.
Characteristics of Computer:
- Speed-It can carry out the computation very fast.
- Accuracy-The results generated by computer are very accurate.
- Versatility-It can process multiple types of data.
- Automatic-If instructions are given correctly, it can work automatic.
- Storage-It can store a huge amount of data.
- Diligent-It is very hard-working in its work.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER
There are several types of Computers as following Consideration:
1. BASED ON WORKING PRINCIPLE/FUNCTION OR (BASIC TYPES)
The computers are classified into the following three types according to their constructions and working.
The digital computers deal discrete quantities such as beads on an abacus or electrical pulses. The digital computers are the computers that we program and use. These computers accept digital data, process them and produce the result to the user. This type of computers is used in business application. The accuracy of digital computer is quite lower than analog computer.
The analog computer deals with continuous physical variables such as electrical voltages or mechanical shaft rotations. The computation with analog computers depends on the relation of information to ta measurement of some physical quantity. The accuracy of analog computer is more than digital computer. The analog computers are mostly used for process control application, equation solution etc.
The computer works in the principles of both analog and digital computers. These types of computers are used in the industrial, jet plane etc.
BASED ON SIZE AND SPEED
Super computer is a broad term of one of the fastest computer on the earth. It is very expensive and employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. it is mostly used in Weather forecasting, scientific research etc.
Mainframe computer was a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or "main frame" of a room-filling stone Age batch machine. Mainframe computer are very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds,or even thousands of users simultaneously.
It is a midsize computer. in the past decade, the large minicomputers and small mainframes has considered same, however as the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. A minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting form up to 200 users simultaneously.
The PC can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user it is common to link them together to form a network. The PC is used for Word processing, accounting, desktop publishing,and for running spreadsheet etc.
Software is that part of computer which we can not see touch or feel or we can say that the logical components of computer System of set/integration of related program are called software.
Software is a set of program which is used for different purpose. It is also defined as the program concerned with operation of the hardware in the data system.
Types of Software:-
IN Advance Level Software is divided into Two Parts, they are
- System Software
- Application software.
But in Basic Level it can be divided into 3 parts
- System Software-Operate
- Application Software-User Tools
- Utility Software - Maintain the system.
System Software:-In short we can say that Bridge between User and Hardware.or The software required for running user program is known as system software. System software is the collection of the programs written for computer, which allows the user to develop and run programs.for Example
- Operating System
- File Management tools
- Language translator
- Utility software
- Device Driver etc.
Mainly system software is divided into two parts:
1. Operating system is a program:-which controls overall operations (activities) of the computer. It is the media point between the computer and operators, dos, UNIX, windows are the example of operating system.
2. Utility program:- Utility program are those programs, which are used for managing files or folders, working with files or folders or drives and developing writing and testing the programs.
Application software:-Application software is complete self-contained program that perform specific functions directly for the user. Or The software written for special purpose (specific) in a specific language is known as application software. These programs perform certain task with respect to related program MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS- PowerPoint, adobe PageMaker, freehand, Photoshop, and AutoCAD are the examples of application software. there are two types of Application Software.
- Package software
- Tailored or custom software
Package software- Programs related to an application are combined together to form a package. eg. Ms- office package, Adobe package, Desktop publishing etc
Tailored software/Custom Software: This kind of software are develop for solving a particular problem. for example BVRS software for Nepal Election Commission provided by w-link for Voter registration.
FIRMWARE - COMBINATION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
LIVEWARE- A Person who operates computer online.
NETWARE- The kind of software used in Networking.
FREEWARE- That kind of software which are available for 100% free as long as it remain un-modified. for example Firefox, AVG antivirus, etc.
SHAREWARE - Trial version of Software which are being available form developers company for a short period of time without paid such as utilities program like Antivirus, Pc games etc.
The data holding capacity of computer is called Memory.
Memory can be classified in 2 groups
- INTERNAL MEMORY
- EXTERNAL MEMORY
- Rom etc
Ram - Function
Read and Write
Read only Memory
Non volatile Memory
A cheap already programmed
1) Primary memory: - It is also called the main memory or the central memory. This memory is resident (attach) on the motherboard. There are two types of primary memory:-
a) ROM (Read Only Memory):-It is permanently in built into the computer at the time of its production. It stores a set of instruction and instructs the computer how to work. The user cannot change these instructions. ROM is non-volatile, that is, when computer goes off this instruction is not lost. Types of Rom are as follows;
- PROM- PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
- EPROM- ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
- EEPROM - ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
- FLASH ROM- FLASH READ ONLY MEMORY
- EAPROM- ELECTRICALLY ALTERABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
For detail please follow the book
b) RAM (Random Access Memory): - It is short-term memory of volatile memory. That is, when the computer is switched ON, the memory, which available to use is RAM, but when the computer is switched OFF, all the information disappears. RAM is temporary whereas ROM is permanent memory. It is read/write, memory i.e. user can either write on to this memory or read from it. types of RAM are as follows:
- SRAM- STATIC RAM
- DRAM - DYANMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
- SDRAM- SYNCHRONOUS DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
- RDRAM- RAMBUS DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
- VRAM- VIDEO RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
- FPMDRAM- FAST PAGE MODE DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
- EDORAM- EXTENDED DATA-OUT DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
2) Secondary memory: - The secondary memory is the external memory. Secondary storage allows string large volumes of data. The contents of secondary storage are not lost when the power is turned OFF.
Secondary storage devices:
Alterbnatively referred as to external memory and auxiliary storage, secondary storage is a storage medium that holds information until it is deleted or overwritten.
Hard drive- secondary storage
USB thumb drive
Limited Storage devices:
stores few amount of information
- Floppy Disk
- Smart card
Mass/ Massive huge storage Devices
- Digital Versatile disk(DVD)
- Magnetic Optical Disk(MO)
- Hard Disk(HD)
- Compact Disk (CD)
- Blue ray disk
Removable Storage Device:
- Pen drive
- Floppy Drive
Fixed Solid Disk
- Hard Disk Drive(HDD)
OPtical Laser Storage Device
- Compact Disk(CD)
- Digital Versatile Disk(DVD)
- Blue ray
a. Hard Disk:
Hard disk is a large capacity, permanent storage area that offers access to the information stored on it. Hard disk is always fixed in the computer and cannot be removed. Huge number of data can be stored in this type of storage media.
b. Floppy Disk
Floppy disks are magnetically coated disks on which information; both programs and data typed from the keyboard, can be stored and retrieved. It is also called portable disk drive.
c. CD-ROM (Compact disk Read Only Memory):- It is non erasable disk used for storing computer data.
3. Control Unit:-
The control unit directs all operations inside the computer. It is known as nerve center of the computer because it controls and co-ordinates all hardware operations.
4. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):- It operates on the data available in the main memory and amends them back after processing once again to the main memory.
Output: Output is the processed data. It is also called result. E.g. Printer, Monitor/ Screen, Speaker.
Data: - Data is just like raw material which provides some meaningful result after processing.
History of computer in Nepal
- Computer was introduced in 1972. This was IBM 1401. HMG had paid 125000 per month as rent for this computer.
- Established in 1975, called yantrikee sarinikaran Kendra (electronic data processing center.)
- In 1991 it was converted to national computer center.
- FACIT was the first computer bought in Nepal in 2018 BS for Cesnsus
- IBM 1401 2ne gen. computer was bought in 2028 B.S.
- ICL 2950/10 2nd gen. computer was bought for census in 2038B.S.
Printer is a Hardcopy device that is used to transfer computer generated information into paper.
Output Quality of Printer is measured in Dot per square inch.
Printers are divided into two categories
- Impact Printer
- Non-Impact Printer
Impact Printer:- Physical contact between Print head and paper during the Printing process or that kind of printer print with Striking of hammers pr pins on ribbon. example of Impact printers are:
- Line printer
- Daisy wheel printer
- Dot matrix printer
- solid font printer
- Golf ball Printer
- Cylinder Printer
Non Impact Printer :- This kind of Printer do not use any kind of striking mechanism or there is no any contact between Print Head and Paper during the printing Process. for example.
- Ink-jet Printer
- Laser Printer
- Electrostatic printer
- Dye sublimation color Printer
- Thermal wax printer
Printer based on speed and quality
- Character Pritner
- Line Printer
- Page Printer
Character Printer:- These kind of Printer prints a character at a time generally low quality, low speed and Low Price.
Speed measured in = CPS(Character Per Second)
eg. Daisy wheel Printer, Golf ball Printer
Line Printer:- These kind of Printer prints a line at a time, this kind of printer are faster than Character printer, generally medium quality, Medium Speed and Medium Cost.
Speed measured in =LPM(Line per Minute)
Page printer:- These kind of Printer prints a page at a time, generally High Quality, High speed, and High Price.
Printer based on Signal Output
- Analog Printer(__________) continuous
- Digital Printer (..................) Non continuous
Analog Printer:- Analog printer means a printer which prints continuous non breaking line.
Digital printer:- Discreate/Non-continuous Printer,which is using by general People in daily life, in offices, cyber etc.
eg. Normal Printer
The most important change in windows 95/98, 2000, XP over earlier versions of windows is new interface called desktop. Desktop is the backdrop on which windows and icons of disks and applications reside. When you open a program or file, it appears in a window on the desktop.
Icons are symbols or pictures that represent documents, applications, folders, devices and others. Initially you will see
at least four icons on your windows 95/98, 2000, XP desktop.
My computer icon on the desktop opens a view into the resources of local computer
Recycle bin is a holding place for all the deleted objects.
Network neighborhood icon is available, if the computer is part of a network or is equipped so it can be connected to one at some point.
d. My document icon it is use for default save location and to save document.
The taskbar is long horizontal bar located at bottom of screen when you start window for the first time. By default, they are always visible when a window is running.
Starting with the start menu.
When you click the start button, you see a menu that contains everything you need to begin using window.
Programà Display a list of programs you can start.
Documentsà Display a list of documents that you have opened previously .It can list 15 documents/program only.
Settingsà Display a list of system components for which you can change settings.
Find/ searchà Enables you to find a folder file, shared computer or mail message.
Helpà Allows using help to find out how to do a task in windows.
Run à execute a program, when you type filename or command.
Shutdown/ turn off à Shuts down or restart your computer or close computer.
A window is a rectangular area on the screen that represents a folder on the desktop. A running program or a document or dialog box in program.
a. Title bar
The title bar is located at the top of the screen. It displays the name of the application or document.
b. Control Menu box.
It is located, or in the upper left corner of each screen. It opens a control menu (also called system menu) containing commands to control the location, size and status of the windows.
c. Menu bar.
A one –line horizontal menu at the top of the screen below the title bar is called a menu bar. It contains a list of options such as file, edit, window, help etc. this makes it easier to learn new applications.
d. Scroll bar.
A scroll bar is a bar that appears at the bottom and right edge of a window whose contents are not entirely visible.
e. Work space.
Work space is the part/ portion of a window that is inside the frame and under the title bar and menu bar. This is also called client area.
f. Maximize button.
Maximize button displayed at the centre of the three buttons, displayed on the right corner of the title bar. When you click on the middle, button the window will become the full screen size of your desktop.
g. Minimize button.
Minimize button collapse a window and makes it disappear from the screen, if want to open a new window while working in another window, you need not close the current window.
h. Restore button.
When a window is maximized, its maximize button is replaced by a restore button.
I. Close button.
You can close any window, which is currently open by clicking on the close button.
Point: - : Place the mouse pointer to the specified object.
Click: - press and release left mouse button.
Right click: - Press and release right mouse button.
Double click: - press and release left mouse button twice quick.
Dragging and dropping: - place the mouse pointer on the object and press mouse left button, hold it down and move to specified location and drop it.
How to open a program?
Click on start button.
Point to program.
Click on specified program which you want to open.
How to close a program?
Click on close button.
Choose file > exit from menu bar
Press Alt +F4 key
Right click on title bar and choose close from menu.
Click on control menu box and choose close
To open a document:
Click on start button.
Click on document.
Click on required document which you want to open.
Creating folder in desktop:-
Right click on blank area of desktop and choose new.
Click on folder option.
Type new name for the folder and press enter key.
Creating new folder into an existing folder:-
Double click on a folder.
choose file > new > folder
Type new name for the folder and press enter key.
Creating new document file by using different program:-
Double click on a folder to where you want to create document file.
choose file > new
Choose a program which you want.
Right click on document file and choose rename and type new name for the document file and press enter key.
Double click on the document file to open corresponding program.
Type the text and/or draw the picture etc.
choose the file > save or click on save tool button to save the document
Click on close button to exit from the program.
Selecting Multiple object (folder, shortcut, doc file) à
Click on the object to select an object.
to select different object, hold down ctrl key and click on different object
To select different object continuously, hold down shift key and drag the mouse pointer near the specified object.
To select all objects at a time, press ctrl+A.
Deselecting object à
To deselect all objects, click left mouse button on empty area.
To deselect different object press ctrl + clicking.
To invert the selection, choose edit > invert selection.
Opening object à
Double click on the object
Right click on the object and choose open.
Select the object (s) and choose file > open.
Select the object and press enter key.
Renaming object à
Right click on the object and choose rename and type new name for the object and press enter.
Select the object and choose file> rename and type new name for the object and press enter
Click on the name of the object, click again and type new name for the object and press enter
Using recycle bin à
To get deleted objects back again or to delete objects permanently.
Double click on recycle bin icon shows temporarily deleted objects
To undelete objects & restore them to their original locations.
Select the objects then right click & choose restore or, choose File > restore from menu bar.
To undelete objects & put them wherever you want, select the objects then find the place where you want them to appear & drag them to appropriate spot.
to delete objects permanently from recycle bin & the disk, select the objects then right click & choose delete or , click on the delete button in the tool bar or , choose file > delete from the menu bar. Choose Yes to delete the object.
To delete all objects permanently at a time, right click on the recycle bin icon on the desktop & choose empty recycle bin from property menu or, choose Yes to confirm the dead.
To restore the most recent deleted objects from the recycle bin to their original locations, choose Edit> undo delete from the menu bar or, click on the undo delete button in the tool bar.
To add a program to the start menu or the programs menu.
1. Right click on task bar & choose properties. Or choose start > settings > task bar
2. Select start menu programs tab.
3. Click on add button then appears shortcut dialog box.
4. Type the location and name of the item you want to create a shortcut at command line criteria or search the item by clicking browse.
5. select group & select file & click open
6. Click on next (to select folder to place shortcut.)
7. Select any folder or new folder.
8. select next (to select name for the shortcut)
9. Type the name for the shortcut & click on finish button.
10. Click on ok button.
To remove program from start menu.
- Choose start > settings > taskbar.
- choose start menu programs tab &click on customize tab.
- Choose remove button then appears remove shortcut/ folder dialog box.
- To remove an item from the start menu select the item & click remove button.
- Click on close and ok button.
1. Choose start > taskbar > start menu programs tab.
2. Click the clear button to remove the contents of document menu.
3. Click on Ok button.
Copying & Moving objects or files/folders :
1. Select the objects which you want to copy or move.
2. press ctrl + C or, Choose Edit > Copy or, Right click & choose copy ( for copying the objects)
3. Press ctrl + X or, choose Edit > cut or right click & choose cut (for moving the objects).
4. Open the destination folder & select the place.
5. Press ctrl + V or, Edit > paste or, Right click & choose paste (to copy or moved the objects.)
- Dragging Method.
1. Select the objects.
2. dragging the objects to specified location (for moving the objects), Ctrl +dragging the objects to specified location (for copying the objects)
- Right dragging Method
1. Select the objects.
2. Right dragging the objects to required location & drop it, displays a dialog box.
3. Choose copy here or, move here option.
Browsing with my computer
1. Double click on my computer icon.
2. double click on drive letter(A: or C: or D: etc)
3. Double click on folder & sub folder until required folders or files are not found.
Move, copy, delete and rename the objects as required
To display the properties of the objects
To display the properties ( type of object, creation date, location, name, size, modification date, attribute- hidden, read only, system, archive etc.) of the selected object.
Select the object.
Choose file > properties or, choose properties button from tool bar.
To display or, hide toolbar
Choose view> toolbar and choose a tool bar.
Go display or hide status bar.
Choose view > status bar
To display small icons format
Choose view > small icons
To display different view format
Choose view > large icons
Choose view > list
Choose view > details (Name, Size, type, modification etc.)
Right click on blank space > choose view> choose the style you like.
Arrange icons in different order
- choose view > arrange icons> name (name wise alphabetic order)
- choose view > arrange icons > size( size wise order-smallest first)
- choose view > arrange icons > date (date wise order – smallest first)
- choose view > arrange > auto arrange (automatic order)
Right click on blank space > choose arrange icon by> choose the style you like.
Finding files or folder.
1. Choose start> Search > files or folder.
2. Click on All file and folders.
3. Select name and location tab (if not selected).
4. Click the named box. And then type the name of files or folder (partial or full name) you want to find.
5. Specify where to search. Click the arrow next to look in box, or browse.
6. Click the find now button to start the search.
7. Click the new search button and ok button to clear the current search.
To start a program or open a document or folder
1. Choose start > Run.
2. Type name of program or file or folder with location.
1. Click on browse to look for the item.
2. Click on ok button.
To change the mouse settings
1. choose start >settings > control panel
3. Double click on my computer icon & double click on control panel.
4. Double click on mouse icon.
5. If buttons tab is not selected, select it.
6. choose buttons configuration ( right handed or left handed)
7. change double click speed (slow or fast)
8. Click ok button.
1. Choose start >settings > control panel.
2. Double click on mouse icon.
3. Select motion tab.
4. change the pointer speed (slow-fast)
5. Click on show pointer trails check box & change the size (short-long) then click on ok button.
1. Choose start > settings > control panel.
2. Double click on mouse icon.
3. Select the pointer tab.
4. Choose one scheme from dropdown scheme list then select one item from the list & choose browse button.
5. choose one option then click on open button & click on use default button( to restore previous)
6. Click on ok button.
Display of Desktopà
Background: to change the background of desktop.
1. Right click on desktop & choose properties.
2. If background tab is not selected, select it.
3. Choose wallpaper option from drop down list (ed. Clouds forest etc.)
4. choose display option (tile or center or stretch)
5. Choose pattern option from drop down list & then click on edit pattern button.
6. Under pattern editor, change the pattern & click on change or done button.
7. Click on ok button.
To apply screen saver:
1. Right click on desktop > click on properties.
2. Select screen saver tab.
3. Choose screen saver option from the list (e.g. - flying window, 3D text.)
4. Click on setting button (especially for 3D text. Or scrolling Marquee)
5. Type the text in text box.
6. Move the size speed & resolution slider left or right.
7. Double click format buttons & choose font, font size and color.
8. Click on ok button twice.
9. type minutes in minute box (wait)
10. Click on preview button to show screen saver.
11. Click on ok button.
To change the appearance of windows:
1. Right click on desktop > click on properties.
2. Click on appearance tab.
3. Choose one item from item list (desktop, menu, icon etc.
4. choose one scheme from scheme list (windows standard, rose, pinks)
5. Choose color from color list, font from font list, size from size list & click on ok or apply button.
1. Right click on desktop > click on properties.
2. Click on settings tab.
3. Choose color palette from color palette list.
4. Change the default desktop area with the help of slider.
5. Choose font size from the list.
6. click on advance properties for advance display properties ( adapter, monitor & performance)
7. Click on ok or apply button.
Date & time
1. choose start> setting > control panel
2. Double click on date & time icon or, double click on time indicator on the taskbar.
3. Click on date & time tab option.
4. Choose month from month list, choose year from year list, choose day for day list.
5. Change the time in up down list as required.
6. Click on ok button.
oComputer : Definition, History, Generation, Characteristics, Types & Applications
oOverview of a computer system:-
§Data and data processing
·Definition of Hardware
·Input unit-Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, etc.
·CPU-Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit (CU), Memory Unit,
·Output Unit :- Monitor, Printer, etc.
·Storage devices :- Primary & Auxiliary Memory (Floppy Disk, Hard Disk,
·Compact Disk, Super Disks, Zip Disks, Cartridge tape, etc)
·Other:- Network card, Modem, Sound card, etc.
·Definition & Types of Software
oSetting & Protection of Computer Room and Computer
oConcept of Computer Viruses and Remedies
oConcept of Multimedia
oIntroduction to Networking
oTypes of Network like LAN, MAN, WAN
oSetting Up Microsoft Network
Multiple Choice Question- on Fundamental of Computer
1. Which is used for manufacturing Chips ?
b. Control Unit
d. A and B only
2. A byte consists of
a. one bit
b. four bits
c. Eight bits
d. Sixteen bits
3. The silicon chips used for data processing are called ?
a. RAM chips
b. ROM chips
c. Micro chips
d. PROM chips
4. The ALU of a computer normally contains a number of high speed storage elements called
a. semiconductor memory
c. Hard disks
d. Magnetic disks
5. The magnetic storage chips used to provide nonvolatile direct access storage of data and that have no moving parts are known as
a. Magnetic core memory
b. Magnetic tape memory
c. Magnetic disk memrory
d. Magnetic bubble memory
6. An input device with joystick is
a. Punched Card
c. Magnetic tape
d. Magnetic Disk
7. When was mini computer built ?
8. In which language source program is written ?
9. Which of the following terms is the most closely related to main memory ?
c. Control Unit
10. Which is the most popular first generation computer ?
a. IBM 1650
b. IBM 360
c. IBM 1130
d. IBM 2700
1-C, 2-C, 3-C, 4-B, 5-D, 6-B, 7-B, 8-C, 9-D, 10-A
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