ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What is Skin Effect in Power System? (Electrical Engineering): Explanation

Updated on June 19, 2013

Skin Effect

There are mainly two effects to be considered in flow of current in conductors of power system.

1. Skin Effect

2. Proximity Effect

What is “Skin Effect”?

Here I am going to explain about Skin Effect. This name is given as from the “skin” word of human body is compared with conductor’s skin. There are two types of current that can pass through conductors in power system. Which are:

1. Alternating Current (A.C)

2. Direct Current (D.C)

When The D.C. (Direct Current) flows in the conductor, the passing current is uniformly distributed across the section of conductor.

When an A.C. Current passing through conductor tends to distribute itself non-uniformly throughout the cross section. The Portion which is near to the surface of conductor will carry a major part of total current. This phemenon is known as skin effect. We can understand this easily by considering the example. Now consider a solid current carrying conductor of circular cross section as shown in figure below:

cross section of conductors (skin effect)
cross section of conductors (skin effect) | Source

Now we can assume this conductor by a large number of small elements in parallel, bunched together and occupying the same space such that the total area of cross section remaining unchanged as shown in figure. Each small element now carries a fraction of total current and these currents setup magnetic fields.

There is a difference in the flux set up by the inner and outer elements. The flux due to element ‘a’ links but not with any of the outer elements. The flux due to an outer element like ‘b’ links with all inner elements up to ‘b’.

The innermost element ‘a’ is concentrated with more flux, thus the inductance of it is much more than that of an outer element ‘b’, which is nearer to surface.

Due to higher reactance of the inner elements, the current would have tendency to concentrate itself to paths nearer to surface of the conductor. This reduces the effective area of cross section of the conductor. The distribution of current is non-uniform.

A typical distribution of current is as shown in below figure:

current flowing in conductor power system (skin effect)
current flowing in conductor power system (skin effect) | Source

Because of this effect the effective resistance of path through which current is passing will be increased. At frequencies less than 50 Hz and diameter less than 1 cm, skin effect is negligible.

Skin effect will depends on the following factors:

1.Frequency: Skin effect increases with increase in frequency

2.Diameter: it increases with increase in diameter.

3.Shape of wire: skin effect is less for stranded conductor and more for solid conductor.

4.Nature of material

Thus skin effect plays major part on selecting conductors for power system. Because there are many factors that affects this effect.

More Articles from Forthefuture

Environmental Global Issues: Global Warming, Acid Rain, Depletion of Ozone Layer

Now a days considering environmental issues is essential to know about. Because it's affecting a lot to our earth. some of them are Global Warming, Acid Rain, Depletion of Ozone Layer.

You can lose weight just laughing!

Did you ever know that when you laugh you are going on path to lose weight? It is proved. You can lose weight by laughing because at that time calories are burnt. you lose weight when you laugh. Trying to lose weight is very simple now.

How to Choose Wood (Bedroom) Furniture Colors Combination?: Tips and Guidelines

Confused about best bedroom color combination? Color combinations for bedroom are very simple to decide. You can know some tips and guideline to choose wood furniture color combination.

What is Quantum Physics Theory? Introduction and Application and Theory Definition

Quantum Physics theories are given by many scientists. What is quantum theory definition? The theory of quantum physics is used for much application that is necessary to know every physics student.

Different Types of Ecosystems: Natural And Artificial Ecosystem

Different types of ecosystem is basic question for environment student. Natural ecosystem is classified in many types. Ecosystems are what we live in. But definition of Ecosystem is scientifically given by different methods.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)