Technically, the fastest typing keyboard is one of a court room stenographer who uses short phrases to write things instead of the full sentence.
Behind that is a style known as Dvorak keyboards. These are designed to help you type faster, but most people can't use them because the keys are arranged for speed as well. (Traditional keyboard layout, Qwerty, was meant so typewriter keys wouldn't bunch up)
Finally, there are several traditional Qwerty keyboards that may help, but the truth is that a full size keyboard is going to be very similar to each other. The quickest way to type is simply to improve your speed with practice.