ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Substation Components

Updated on December 29, 2013

Electric Substations are the part of the power system and used for transferring power from generating points to load centers. Some of the important components of substation are

Busbars:

Various incoming and outgoing circuits are connected to busbars. Busbars receive power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits.

Bus Bars
Bus Bars

Surge arrestors or Lightning arrester:

Surge Arresters or Lightning Arresters discharge the over voltage surges to earth and protect the equipment insulation from switching surges and lightning surges. Surge arresters are generally connected between phase conductor and ground. In a Substation surge arrester is located at the starting of the substation as seen from incoming transmission lines and is the first equipment of the substation. Surge arresters are also provided near the transformer terminals phase to ground. Two type of surge arresters are available 1) Gapped Arresters 2) Gapless Zinc – Oxide arresters.

Lightning Arrester or Surge Arreseter
Lightning Arrester or Surge Arreseter

Isolators or Disconnecting Switches:

Isolators are provided for isolation from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. Isolators are located at either side of the circuit breaker. Isolators are operated under no load. Isolator does not have any rating for current breaking or current making. Isolators are interlocked with circuit breakers

Types of Isolators are

  1. Central rotating, horizontal swing
  2. Centre-Break
  3. Vertical swing
  4. Pantograph type

Isolators
Isolators

Earth Switch:

Earth Switch is used to discharge the voltage on the circuit to the earth for safety. Earth switch is mounted on the frame of the isolators. Earth Switch is located for each incomer transmission line  and each side of the busbar section

Current Transformer:

Current transformers are used for Stepping down current for measurement, protection and control. Current transformers are of two types

  1. Protective CT 
  2. Measuring CT

Current Transformer
Current Transformer

Voltage Transformer:

Voltage transformers are used to step down the voltage for measurement, protection and control. Voltage transformers are of two types.

  1. Electro magnetic type
  2. Capacitive VT located on the feeder side of the Circuit Breaker.

Voltage Transformer
Voltage Transformer

Circuit Breaker:

Circuit Breaker is used for Switching during normal and abnormal operating conditions. It is used to interrupt the short circuit currents. It is used to interrupt short circuit currents. Circuit Breaker operations include.

  1. Closing
  2. Opening
  3. Auto – reclosing

Circuit Breaker is located near every switching point and also located at the both ends of every protection zone.

SF6 Circuit Breaker
SF6 Circuit Breaker

Power Transformers:

Power Transformers are used to step up or step – down a.c. voltages and to transfer electrical power from one voltage level to another. Tap changers are used for voltage control.

Power Transformer
Power Transformer

Shunt Reactors:

Shunt Reactors are used for long EHV transmission lines to control voltage during low – load period. Shunt reactors is also used to compensate shunt capacitance of transmission line during low load periods.  Usually Shunt reactors are unswitched.

Shunt Reactors Bank
Shunt Reactors Bank

Shunt Capacitance:

   Shunt capacitors are used for compensating reactive power of lagging power factor. Shunt Capacitors are used for improving the power factor. It is also used for voltage control during heavy lagging power factor loads. Shunt Capacitors are located at the receiving stations and distribution substations. Shunt Capacitors are switched in during heavy loads and switched – off during low loads.

Shunt Capacitor Bank
Shunt Capacitor Bank

Series Capacitor:

Series Capacitors are used for some long EHV a.c lines to improve power transferability. Capacitors are located at the sending end / receiving end of the lines. Series Capacitors are provided with by – pass circuit breaker and protective spark – gaps.

Series Capacitors
Series Capacitors

Series Reactors

Series reactors are used to limit short – circuit current and to limit current surges associated with fluctuating loads. Series reactors are located at the strategic locations such that the fault levels are reduced.

Series Reactors
Series Reactors

Lightning Protection:

Lightning protection is used to protect substation equipment from direct lightning strokes. Lightning Masts are located at the outdoor yard. Overhead Shielding wires are used to cover entire outdoor yard.

Lightning Masts
Lightning Masts

Isolated Phase Bus System:

Isolated Phase Bus System provides connection between Generator and the main Transformer. It carries very high currents.

Isolated Phase Bus Duct
Isolated Phase Bus Duct

Neutral Grounding Equipment:

Neutral Grounding Equipment are Resistors and reactors. They are used to limit the short circuit current during ground fault. They are connected between neutral point and ground.

neutral Grounding resistor
neutral Grounding resistor

Line Trap:

Line Trap consists of Inductive coil usually connected in the outdoor yard incoming line. Line traps are usually mounted above Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT) or on separate structure.

Wave Trap or Line Trap
Wave Trap or Line Trap

Insulators:

Used for Insulation purpose. Different types of insulators are porcelain, Glass, Epoxy.

Porcelain Insulators
Porcelain Insulators

Power Cables:

Power Cables are used to carry the power. They are single core and three core. Types of power cables are PVC insulated, XLPE insulated.

XLPE insulated Power Cable
XLPE insulated Power Cable

Control Cables:

Control Cables are for protection, control and measurement etc.. They are of low voltage and PVC insulated. Control Cables are Multi core and Shielded.

XLPE insulated Control Cables
XLPE insulated Control Cables

Station Earthing System:

Station Earthing System includes Earth Mat and Earth electrodes placed below ground level. These Earth Mat and Earth electrode is connected to the equipment structures, neutral points for the purpose of Equipment earthing  and neutral point earthing.

Function earthing system is to provide low resistance earthing for

  1. Discharging currents from the surge arresters, overhead shielding, earthing switches
  2. For equipment body earthing
  3. For safe touch potential and step potential in substation.

Earthing Mat
Earthing Mat

Metering, Control and Relay panels:

To house various measuring Instruments, control Instruments, Protective relays. They are located in air-conditioned building. Control Cables are laid between Switchyard equipment and these panels.

Metering and Control Panel
Metering and Control Panel

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      johny 6 years ago

      thanks a lot.plz give ur no? send more information to

      johnyx7@gmail.com

    • profile image

      kunal 6 years ago

      thanx

    • profile image

      Kranthi 5 years ago

      Gud stuff yar,.useful

    • profile image

      Akash Gupta 5 years ago

      thanks for dis grt report

    • profile image

      hemant 5 years ago

      thanks man..it was really helpful..

    • profile image

      srikannan 5 years ago

      usefull think for others.... Thanx

    • profile image

      nonjabulo 5 years ago

      thanks a lots

    • profile image

      nazren 5 years ago

      thanks for the note...very usefull...but, what is the function of air breaker switch?

    • profile image

      Sola 5 years ago

      Good site it help a lot.

    • profile image

      aswini 5 years ago

      it is very help full to other. thank u.

    • profile image

      piyush patwal 5 years ago

      gud 1....

    • profile image

      sameera 5 years ago

      wonderful effort...

    • profile image

      tejashri 5 years ago

      thanks

      send me other related infofmation at ptejashri12@gmail.com

    • profile image

      jayendrasinh 5 years ago

      send more information about sub station and their equipments.........

      Thank you .........:)

    • profile image

      pragya tushar 5 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      vijay bodake 5 years ago

      it is really helpful information.

    • profile image

      santosh ganesh 5 years ago

      good information i got ca u please send some more in detail regarding switchyard and a power plant to ganesh@pnuengg.com

    • profile image

      Ajay 5 years ago

      Very gooooood

    • profile image

      Sudhir 5 years ago

      Good site

    • profile image

      shivaraj 5 years ago

      thank u so much and pl send any new updates to shivarajdarisa@gmail.com

    • profile image

      krishna 5 years ago

      i want more information

    • profile image

      dhivya 4 years ago

      its gud and more usefull but more information is needed in detail

    • profile image

      vishal 4 years ago

      it's nice photograph of substations

    • profile image

      karan 4 years ago

      short and sweet information.thanks a lot

    • profile image

      ramya 4 years ago

      it is very nice and i want more from it

    • profile image

      saroganesh 4 years ago

      thank you sir, it would be very helpful to me. thank you sir. if you have more like this please share with saroganeshhow@gmail.com

    • profile image

      cm 4 years ago

      Really useful ..thank u very much

    • profile image

      mukesh 4 years ago

      Thanks sir

    • profile image

      sree 4 years ago

      thank you boss.........

    • profile image

      muhammad qaiser 4 years ago

      its very good information about substation

    • profile image

      AMBADAS MARAKALE 4 years ago

      If 220 kv receiving station near by project,than what will the power fator to be consider for transformer sizing at distribution system.

      is it ok if consider 0.85 pf instead of 0.8 pf.

    • profile image

      vineet vaisakhiya 4 years ago

      useful informations are showing in this chapter. Nice work boy.

    • profile image

      kgotso 4 years ago

      that's a very useful info u shared there, where can i contact you for more info? you can contact me at the folowing email address kmoloi@yahoo.com or moloikp@eskom .co.za

    • profile image

      kashif 4 years ago

      excellent

    • profile image

      kumar 4 years ago

      thank u

    • profile image

      manoj 4 years ago

      very use full.................... thanq very much............

    • profile image

      er.mukesh531@gmail.com 4 years ago

      THANKS A LOT FOR THIS ALL INFORMATION....

    • profile image

      sudhakar dalai 4 years ago

      thanks kiran for your value able information about substation

    • profile image

      sudhakar 4 years ago

      hi kiran,,,,i am sudhakar from odisha,,i am doing powerplant course in NPTI(DURGAPUR),,,,,Please add information about switchyard and their equipment in details...........i am waiting for ur answer,,,thanks

    • profile image

      hadronchakwana@yahoo.com 4 years ago

      Fantastic work this is.

    • profile image

      Etuhole 4 years ago

      Quite consice. Very helpful. Thanx.

    • profile image

      Etuhole 4 years ago

      *concise

    • profile image

      Etuhole 4 years ago

      * Helpful

    • profile image

      Appoitproda 4 years ago

      My partner and i accustomed to acquire at the top of living yet these days I've truly built up any amount of resistance.

    • profile image

      md.abulaish 4 years ago

      THANKS A LOT FOR THIS ALL INFORMATION

    • profile image

      SAKTHI 4 years ago

      THANK U FOR GIVING THIS INFORMATION SIR

    • profile image

      mani 4 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      ankit kumar 4 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      AHMED 4 years ago

      HI SIR

      THANK U FOR GIVING US THESE INFORMATIONS

      THAT WHAT I HAD BEEN LOOKING FOR

      BEST REGARDS

    • profile image

      athul 4 years ago

      thank you.......................................... its very usefull.

    • profile image

      nagendra 4 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      Rajesh 4 years ago

      best information

    • profile image

      dhanoop c 4 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      munmun barman 3 years ago

      thank u sir.....4 dis wonderful answer

    • sushant143 profile image

      sushant143 3 years ago from India

      very well written . thanks

    • profile image

      SAURABH 3 years ago

      nice work

    • profile image

      Mitsue Paterson 3 years ago

      [quote]8192 characters left.[/quote]

      Seriously a good deal of fantastic knowledge..

      Amazing info, Regards.

    • profile image

      Tharindu Dhanushka 3 years ago

      Thank you for your great effort to make our life easier

    • profile image

      varadhu 3 years ago

      thnk

    • profile image

      PAWANDEEP 3 years ago

      THANKEW SO MUCH SIR

    • profile image

      lakhan kumar patnaik 3 years ago

      Dear mam,

      Can u explain how to calculate the relay settings for protection?

    • profile image

      Amit 3 years ago

      I have some questions that - 1. suppose total power of a mega food park is 5100 Kilowatt and the total utilities is 1200 kilowatt, so what KV of Transformer will be used for it? Please give me the answer and the rules for it, my id is adi.mallick5@gmail.com. Thank You.

    • profile image

      vikas 3 years ago

      Thanks good details in short form

    • profile image

      deepesh jangde 3 years ago

      its very useful information in short form.................

    • profile image

      Hendrina 3 years ago

      Thank you,very helpful

    • profile image

      shiva 3 years ago

      v good material thnq

    • profile image

      reddy 3 years ago

      thanks for gud information

    • profile image

      Sunny Nanera 3 years ago

      wow yaar we really want it .........................

      thanks .........

    • profile image

      anna,nthabiseng,discound 3 years ago

      wow, this is straight forward information

    • profile image

      chanti 3 years ago

      thanks for good information

    • profile image

      Asad Naeem 3 years ago

      Thanks for good information

    • profile image

      anil 3 years ago

      you are collection so good,lam satisfied.

    • profile image

      shiva 3 years ago

      its very very usefull...........

    • profile image

      vydehi 3 years ago

      thank u soo much..send mre details about a substation brifly 2 my mali id ganjivydehi@yahoo.com

    • profile image

      ninder 3 years ago

      mind bloing...

    • profile image

      debe 3 years ago

      God Blees U

    • profile image

      Ruby Dennis 3 years ago

      Wow! What an awesome compilation!

      You should really consider doing this professionally, like getting a proper domain name, adsense, et all.. :))

      Good Luck with everything! GBU!

    • profile image

      Engr. Noor Islam jabbarkheil 2 years ago

      Excellent...... to the point dear.

    • profile image

      ratul mollick 2 years ago

      thnxxx man

    • profile image

      srikanth 2 years ago

      thank you very much

    • profile image

      Teju koli 2 years ago

      nice info.....

    • profile image

      Krishna chilakabattini 2 years ago

      Dear Sir,

      If we can use 50 hetz transformer at 100 hetz what is the problem. Please give me information with formula's.

      Krishna.may06@gmail.com

    • profile image

      Raj 2 years ago

      awesome! Thnkx

    • profile image

      BRUNO 17 months ago

      Hi Sir, what are the powers of H59 and H61 transformers and how are they installed?

    • profile image

      Raj 16 months ago

      Ur classification is very nice

      It can be understand by everyone

    • profile image

      ani 16 months ago

      thanku for ur valuble informition .it is very clear

    • profile image

      lin 15 months ago

      fsdfsfsdf

    • profile image

      DoveFreexrolo 13 months ago

      I must say that this post is the most relevant article I’ve ever read and saw. It’s a great help to everyone who is looking for this information.

    • profile image

      omo 12 months ago

      Thank you so much. it was very useful.

      God bless you.

    • profile image

      pradeepamanieee@gmail.com 10 months ago

      what is mean by bushing?

    Click to Rate This Article