ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Technology»
  • Internet & the Web

How DNS Resolves Names and IP Address

Updated on April 8, 2017


DNS definition: DNS(domain name service) translates the computer name into an IP address. When a user make a request by typing the URL(www.hubpages.com) in the browser and get back the website on screen, actually a DNS server receive the request of the URL and translate is into an IP “66.111.109.13” what is the actual address of the site.So we can say that hubpages.com=66.111.109.13. Since it's much easier for human mind to remember a name rather than a long number that's why we use DNS to translate the name of a site into an IP address what Internet actually understand and can deal with.



How DNS Resolves Names

DNS can answer three types of queries that a user can make to a DNS server: recursive, iterative, and inverse. The client of a DNS server can be a resolver (what you’d normally call a client/user) or another DNS server.

Before knowing exactly how DNS works one need to be familiar with the following terms like resolvers, clients, root servers, DNS zones.

Clients

A DNS client is any machine issuing queries to a DNS server. The client hostname mayor may not be registered in a name server (DNS) database. Clients issue DNS requests (e.g hubpages.com)through processes called resolvers which resides in the client machines.

Resolvers

The resolvers handle the process of mapping a symbolic name(e.g. hubpages.com) to an actual network address (66.111.109.13). The resolver (which may reside on another machine) issues queries to name servers. When a resolver receives information from name servers, it caches that information locally(on your own computer) in case the same information is requested again.

Root servers

When a DNS server processes a recursive query and that query cannot be resolved from local zone files, the query must be escalated to a root DNS server. The root server is responsible for returning an authoritative answer for a particular domain or a referral to aserver that can provide an authoritative answer. Because each DNS server is supposed to havea full set of root hints (which point to root servers for various top-level domains), your DNSserver can refer queries recursively to other servers with the assistance of the root servers.

DNS Zones

All DNS servers work together to resolve hierarchical names. If they already have information about a name(e.g. cnn.com), they simply fulfill the query for the client; otherwise, they query other DNS servers for the appropriate information. The system works well because it distributes the authority of separate parts of the DNS structure to specific servers. A DNS zone is a portion of the DNS namespace over which a specific DNS server has authority.

Below figure shows an example of both recursive and iterative queries. In this example, a user within his office is querying its DNS server for the IP address for hubpages.com. Here’s what happens to resolve the request:


How Dns Resolves Names - Windows DNS Name Resolution - IP Address Resolution Process
How Dns Resolves Names - Windows DNS Name Resolution - IP Address Resolution Process

how to use ipconfig command line utility

What happens when DNS resolve the request

1. The resolver sends a recursive DNS query to its local DNS server asking for the IP address of hubpages.com. The local name server is responsible for resolving the name and cannot refer the resolver to another name server.

2. The local name server checks its zones and finds no zones corresponding to the requested domain name.

3. The root name server has authority for the root domain and will reply with the IP address of a name server for the Com top-level domain.

4. The local name server sends an iterative query for hubpages.com to the Com name server.

5. The Com name server replies with the IP address of the name server servicing the hubpages.com domain.

6. The local name server sends an iterative query for hubpages.com to the hubpages.com name server.

7. The hubpages.com name server replies with the IP address corresponding to hubpages.com

8. The local name server sends the IP address of hubpages.com back to the original resolver.

You can use the command-line tool ipconfig to view your DNS client settings.The commands are:

ipconfig/all
Display all information about your DNS
ipconfig/flushdns
Flushes and resets the DNS resolver cache.
ipconfig/registerdns
Refreshes all DHCP leases and registers any related DNS names..
ipconfig/displaydns
Displays the contents of the DNS resolver cache.

nslookup is a utility mostly used to troubleshoot DNS related problems. You can use nslookup for manual name resolution queries against DNS servers and get information about the DNS configuration of your computer or specify what kind of DNS record should be resolved.

To open nslookup go to your computer start menu,click Run and type 'cmd'.A command line window will pop up.In the command prompt type nslookup and press enter and type

set type=any  ,now type any site name you are interested in.For details please see the below picture.


Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      cracklight 3 years ago

    • profile image

      8 liner boards 5 years ago

      I always had some confusion related to DNS and IP address but thanks to your write up, it has been solved. Thank you so much for sharing such a well written piece.

    • profile image

      Dinesh Jain 7 years ago

      Gr8 explaination of the concept. Thanks!

    • andromida profile image
      Author

      syras mamun 8 years ago

      Thanks gejindermaakan,you are already an IT boss.

      WebMag-I am glad that you liked it.thanks for stopping by.

    • andromida profile image
      Author

      syras mamun 8 years ago

      Lady_E thanks for visit,it's very true knowledge is power,I am getting free knowledge online everyday,wow,that's the beauty of 21st Century.

    • andromida profile image
      Author

      syras mamun 8 years ago

      Thanks Warren for stopping by,now DNS is not a secret to you.You can try the commands in your command prompt.It's fun.

    • WebMag profile image

      WebMag 8 years ago

      This is excellent article with in depth information about the subject. I must say I'm amazed.

    • Lady_E profile image

      Elena 8 years ago from London, UK

      More important info. You know what they say - Knowledge is Power. Thanks for sharing. :)

      Ps. I like that Table.

    • Waren E profile image

      Waren E 8 years ago from HAS LEFT THE BUILDING............

      Hey that's some high secrets your revealing there man,

      thanks for sharing!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)