ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Cordoba: Layers of History

Updated on July 14, 2018
aesta1 profile image

Mary and her husband work on international projects and have worked in the Maldives helping the government with skills development.

The Alcazar de los Reyes Christianos in Cordoba
The Alcazar de los Reyes Christianos in Cordoba | Source

Cordoba: Lessons in the Passage of History

Tribal foundations with Roman walls. Moorish expansion with castellations and finally, stuck on top over 500 years of Spanish decoration and primping. This is my image of Cordoba. Like grandma, nothing was ever thrown out or wasted. If ties could be stitched into skirts, why not mosque to cathedral. Wonderful lessons in the passage of history and the resilience of great ideas.

The Mesquite in Cordoba Spain
The Mesquite in Cordoba Spain | Source

Cordoba and Western European Development

Cordoba holds the key to many layers of Western cultural, intellectual and spiritual development. This is best illustrated in a painting in the Calahorra Tower of a group of Christians from the East (Byzantine) visiting the Muslims of the West (Cordoba). Cordoba broke its ties with the Eastern Caliphate in Damascus and established itself as the first Western Caliphate. Nothing could compare with Cordoba as the centre of culture at that time. Some say it was Europe's largest city.

It was here in Cordoba that Columbus negotiated his voyage with the Catholic Majesties, Ferdinand and Isabella. This encounter is immortalized in the garden of the Alcazar de los Reyes Christianos where there is a life-size statue of Columbus and the two rulers.

Columbus with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Columbus with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella | Source

Cordoba Attractions

A
The Cathedral-Mosque:
Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, Calle del Cardenal Herrero, 1, 14003 Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

B
The Calahorra Tower:
Calahorra Tower, Puente Romano, s/n, 14009 Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

C
The Roman Temple:
Roman Temple, Calle Capitulares, s/n, 14003 Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

D
Alcazar de los Reyes Christianos:
Alcazar of the Christian Monarchs, Plaza Campo Santo de los Mártires, s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Córdoba, S

get directions

E
Juderia Cordoba:
Calle Judería, 14003 Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

F
Madinat Al Zahra:
Medina Azahara - Conjunto Arqueológico Madinat al-Zahra, Carretera Palma del Río, 55, 14005 Córdoba,

get directions

G
The Roman Bridge:
Roman Bridge, 14003, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

H
Palacio Museo de Viana:
Palacio Museo de Viana, Plaza de Don Gome, 2, 14001 Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

I
Galeria de la Inquicision:
Galería de la inquisición, Calle Manríquez, 1, 14003 Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

get directions

J
Casa Museo Arte sobre Piel:
Casa Ramón García Romero (antes Casa Museo Arte sobre Piel), Plaza Agrupación de Cofradías, 2, 14003

get directions

The Mezquita in Cordoba

The Mezquita in Cordoba
The Mezquita in Cordoba | Source

Best Places to Visit in Cordoba

Which of these is for you the top place to visit in Cordoba?

See results
The Cordoba Mezquita at Night
The Cordoba Mezquita at Night | Source

1. The Mezquita-Great Cathedral-Mosque

A space vast enough to hold Islam and Christianity comfortably in its stadium level greatness. It is said that for many years, one area was identified as a synagogue.

This was indeed a place where Moors, Christians and Jews could worship when it was first built by Abderraman I in 785 A.D. Later, however, when the Caliphate needed a bigger mosque, it made the place exclusive for the Moors.

The endless horseshoe arches, said to have originated from Visigoth art, in their red and white stripes, make it different from any Cathedral you've ever seen.

Roman foundations occasionally intrude as Córdoba was a Roman colony and the capital of the Roman Province, Betica. Then, the Visigoths came and took the city from the Romans in the 3rd century. The Mosque was built on the remains of the Visigoth's St. Vincent Basilica. Look for the glassed in diggings of the St Vincent Basilica when you're in the Cathedral as the remains of the Mosaic representing this Greco-Roman heritage are well preserved and displayed.

The Inside of the Mezquita in Cordoba

The Mesquita in Cordoba
The Mesquita in Cordoba | Source

Mezquita: Mix of Moorish, Roman, Visigoth and Christian Influences

The mix of Moorish, Roman, Visigoth influences and, of course, the wealth and majesty of the Christian church makes for a stunning display. The different altars of various Saints are in themselves major works of art. The Cathedral is still being used and there was a service going on when we were there.

The Choir is the grandest I have ever seen and the arches and columns inside are spectacular. In all our travels we have never seen anything like this. You can stay there for the day and not finish admiring all the carefully displayed history.

The stained glass windows are magnificent, representation of the best of Spain or the Church. The Cathedral is huge horizontally whereas St. Peter's in Rome is massive vertically and horizontally but this surpasses St. Peter's for its historical significance in terms of the various religions on display here.

The Castle of the Christian Monarchs at Night
The Castle of the Christian Monarchs at Night | Source

2. The Castle of the Christian Monarchs

A Fortress and a Palace made more magnificent by its gardens with water fountains, flowers, mature trees and sculptures. It's four corner towers, the tower of the Lions, the Main tower, the tower of the Doves and the tower of the Inquisition, stand magnificent when viewed from the gardens.

The centre piece of the Castle of the Christian Monarchs is the statue of Ferdinand and Isabela with Christopher Columbus negotiating his share of the take if he hit China. The gardens are stunning, built around the glorification of running water that only a desert nation could understand. The legacy of the Arab world is everywhere and is integrated into what we see, at least, as the soul of Spain.

A must see of the displays is the 3rd century Roman sarcophagus with its front sculptured with the journey to the underworld. Some Roman mosaics with designs of Medusa, the Angels and geometric designs are also on display in the small baroque chapel and are very good representations of the early Greco-Roman heritage of the city.

The Garden in the Castle of the Christian Monarchs
The Garden in the Castle of the Christian Monarchs | Source

3. The Juderia Cordoba

Built in 1315 in the Jewish Quarter of Córdoba, the place underwent several reincarnations after the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. You can see here a good example of the Mudejar style of architecture. The center piece is the statue of the famous Jewish philosopher Maimonides. As well, on display are well curated Sephardic remnants.

Casa Andalusi in Cordoba
Casa Andalusi in Cordoba | Source

4. Casa Andalusi

Visiting this 12th century house, a typical Hispano-Islamic abode, one is introduced into how families lived in the 14th century: rooms for men, rooms for women, kitchen with all the tools used and the Arabic coins used then.

The Roman Temple in Cordoba
The Roman Temple in Cordoba | Source

5. The Roman Temple

Dated from the 1st century, this temple dedicated to the cult of the Emperor has 6 columns rising from a high podium. We just happened to see it in one of our walks and immediately recognized it.

The Roman Water Wheel
The Roman Water Wheel | Source

6. The Roman Bridge

When you enter Córdoba, you'll immediately see the throng on the bridge. People are drawn to the structure as a living remnant of the age before Christ and although much has been conserved and reinforced, one can almost see Caesar and his Legions. The old water wheel and the aqueduct underneath still represent the Roman supremacy in technology at that time.

The Roman Bridge and the Calahorra Tower in Cordoba
The Roman Bridge and the Calahorra Tower in Cordoba | Source

7. Torre de la Calahorra

There are still so many attractions in the city that writing about more would take more pages. Córdoba, being the most important city in the Western Muslim world at its height, has so many other monuments to brag about. However, the one that summarized for me my experience of Córdoba and my impression of its role in history is the Torre de la Calahorra.

As one enters the first room in the tower, the four stalwarts of Córdoba welcome you to what Andalus was at that time. Starting in the 10th century when the city became the most important in the Western world and the most advanced in thinking as exemplified by its 4 enlightened leaders, Maimonides, Averroes, Ibn Arabi and Alphonse X, the Wise.

That was the time when the three Abrahamic religions lived in harmony in the city. May that time live again.

The Hammam al Andalus
The Hammam al Andalus | Source

8. Hammam al Andalus Córdoba

From the Castle of the Christian Monarchs, it is an easy walk to the Caliphate baths. You'll find illustrated the various steps of the process of bathing at the time with all its steps really as a socializing activity and the splendour of life in the Andalusia kingdom. These are the largest Moorish baths in Europe.

Take this poll on Cordoba

Have you been to Cordoba?

See results

Cordoba Food Specialties

There are two dishes that we enjoyed in Cordoba:

1. Rabo del Toro (Braised Oxtail)

2. Eggplant with Honey

Key Tip to Cordoba Travel:

Parking is difficult to find so get a hotel where there is parking. This will make your travel stress free.

Try preparing Rabo del Torro

Best City in our Visit of Southern Spain and Portugal

We spent six weeks in Southern Spain and Portugal and Cordoba by far was our best experience. Seville was second and Sintra came third. Try to visit them all.

Get this guidebook for more tips on visiting this beautiful Spanish city as well as other cities close by. Make more use ofyour trip by combining your visit to these places.

As a footnote, visit tiny, perfect Obidos or you'll live forever in regret.

Top Tip in Visiting Cordoba

Schedule your visit to this Spanish city in May when the Courtyard Festival is on. The courtyards of the Cordoba houses are fully decorated and there is a competition which dates back to 1921 as to which courtyard is the best. It has even been recognized by UNESCO with a cultural heritage status.

Courtyards in Cordoba started when the Romans built their homes around a courtyard to have a place to take refuge from the heat. The Moors raised this to even more prominence by adding fountains, climbing roses, beautifully crafted furniture and other sculptural elements to the courtyards that today, they have become the centers where people receive their guests and have regular social exchanges.

This is a 12-day festival in May so you have sufficient time to experience it. Below is a peek at some of Cordoba's courtyards:

Your Top Spanish City

What is your favourite Spanish city?

See results

© 2015 Mary Norton

Any experience of Cordoba you want to share?

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      2 months ago from UK

      Thank you, Mary. Your encouragement is very much appreciated.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      I did look at it and I can't say anything more. You did a very good review.

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      2 months ago from UK

      Thank you, Mary. I appreciate your encouragement. Please don't interrupt important and precious family time by looking through my hotel review. It can wait until you have more time.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      I definitely will do that but honestly, there are better writers than I am. You have a knack at what HP wants for wanderwisdom so keep on.

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      2 months ago from UK

      Thank you for your encouragement. I look to you as a benchmark of how good travel writing should be done. I have some hotel reviews waiting to be done. If you have a chance I would be very grateful if you can take a look at my Holiday Inn Express Porto Exponor article and give me some pointers on how I can improve future hotel reviews. It took a while to get it featured and I'm worried that I'm missing the mark somehow.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thanks Liz. I can say the same of your articles. I'm sure you enjoyed your visit to Cordoba as we did.

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      2 months ago from UK

      This brings back great memories of an all to brief visit to Cordoba 10 years ago. Your articles are so thorough. I wish I could read them before my visits.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      It is a beautiful city with its well preserved Moorish architecture.

    • vocalcoach profile image

      Audrey Hunt 

      3 months ago from Idyllwild Ca.

      Thanks, Mary for this wonderful, beautiful, travelog. Putting Cordoba on my bucket list.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      Right. We were lucky that way.

    • Robert Sacchi profile image

      Robert Sacchi 

      3 months ago

      One of the perks of working internationally.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you Robert. It is only because we have lived so many years and worked internationally.

    • Robert Sacchi profile image

      Robert Sacchi 

      3 months ago

      Thank you for the look at and background of Cordoba, Spain. You have see so many marvelous places.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      9 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      Oh no. Your article was so well written. Hope to see more.

    • Jorge Cruz99 profile image

      Jorge 

      9 months ago from Canada

      Absolutely wonderful article, I should learn from you

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      22 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      I am sure one day you'll get a chance.

    • MartieCoetser profile image

      Martie Coetser 

      22 months ago from South Africa

      Awesome and extremely interesting! Wish I could see Cordoba with my own eyes.

      Thank you, aesta!

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      it is really a must visit place especially because of what is stands for.

    • gerimcclym profile image

      Geri McClymont 

      2 years ago

      Well, I have not been there but would definitely like to after reading this article :)

    • sujaya venkatesh profile image

      sujaya venkatesh 

      2 years ago

      itching to visit

    • Les Trois Chenes profile image

      Les Trois Chenes 

      2 years ago from Videix, Limousin, South West France

      Fabulous photos of this great city. I did go there a long time ago but clearly I need to go back again for another visit. I missed so much. Thank you for a super article.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thanks Tess. Am happy to add you to my circle. Your articles were exactly what we need to talk about.

    • TessSchlesinger profile image

      Tessa Schlesinger 

      2 years ago from South Africa

      Couldn't do the poll because I loved them all. :) Loved Cordoba. And Granada. And Seville. And Malaga. And Barcelona. And Madrid. And more than I can name and remember. :) Just shared on Google Plus.

      https://plus.google.com/u/0/+TessaSchlesinger/post...

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      I also love Barcelona and Madrid as well as Mallorca but for history, Cordoba and Granada are tops.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      2 years ago from Houston, Texas

      What a great introduction to Cordoba for those of us who have never been there. I voted Barcelona simply because we spent more time there during the summer Olympics many years ago. We also stayed in Madrid for a few days and saw the walled city of Toledo. The Island of Mallorca was also a beautiful part of Spain which we enjoyed. Would love to see more of Spain someday.

      I echo your feelings about people with different religions living in peace. More than ever appropriate for the current times in which we live.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      2 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      There are so many places to visit and history to learn in Spain. Weather is great as well as the food. Barcelona, Madrid, Granada, Sevilla, Cadiz, Avila, Bilbao, Rhonda, Burgos, and, of course, the coast. You could easily enjoy 3 months there. Portugal is close by so there are more options.

    • lindacee profile image

      lindacee 

      2 years ago from Arizona

      I have not been to Spain. I have friends and a client there, so I really need to visit. Your informative Hub about Cordoba has me ready to book my flight! I would actually love to spend my entire 3 month tourist visa traveling around the country.

    • Kristen Howe profile image

      Kristen Howe 

      3 years ago from Northeast Ohio

      Mary, this was a great hub about Cordoba Spain. So visual with the photos and the travelogue depictions. Voted up for useful!

    • monia saad profile image

      monia ben saad 

      3 years ago from In my Dream

      I am now more longing to visit this wonderful place. From what I read I feel during my stay there.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you so much Favored. I try.

    • favored profile image

      Fay Favored 

      3 years ago from USA

      Every time I read one of your history/travel articles it makes me feel like I'm already there. Your photos make it even more intriguing.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      This visit to Cordoba is one I truly enjoyed. I learned so much there.

    • colorfulone profile image

      Susie Lehto 

      3 years ago from Minnesota

      What ans interesting place Cordoba must be to visit, Mary. Once again your description and photos are awesome. Up votes!

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Because they built in stone, these remain for us to enjoy.

    • poetryman6969 profile image

      poetryman6969 

      3 years ago

      I find it fascinating that you can still see Roman influence centuries later.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you DaphneDL for sharing this hub.

    • DaphneDL profile image

      Daphne D. Lewis 

      3 years ago from Saint Albans, West Virginia

      A great hub with amazing photos. I'd love to see the Roman water wheel!!

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      I hope you go as this place is so full of history. By the way, good to see you here.

    • delia-delia profile image

      Delia 

      3 years ago

      What great photos and information...my daughter just came back from Spain, I really don't know if she went that far south to Cordoba...she wants us to visit there...I wish I could stop the clock, so many places so little time!

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      We really enjoyed our visit to Córdoba and would highly recommend it.

    • oceansnsunsets profile image

      Paula 

      3 years ago from The Midwest, USA

      Cordoba looks like such an interesting place with a rich history! I learned something new, and would love to visit there one day.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you Tillsontitan. I am happy you had a good visit. Thanks for the vote and your generous comment.

    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 

      3 years ago from New York

      Aestra this has all the markings of an excellent hub! Your writing is superb, your history perfect and your pictures amazing. With all your experience and travelling have you thought about writing articles or books about the places you've been?

      Thank you for this lovely visit to Cordoba!

      Voted all but funny.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thanks Audrey. I'm glad you enjoyed it. I was amazed at how beautiful it was.

    • vocalcoach profile image

      Audrey Hunt 

      3 years ago from Idyllwild Ca.

      This is a spectacular hub! The photos are magnificent. What a wonderful opportunity to visit Cordoba through your hub. Voted up, useful, awesome, beautiful, interesting and will be sharing. Big thanks!

      Audrey

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you Peggy. We did the southern part this time as it is warmer. Thank you for sharing.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      3 years ago from Houston, Texas

      We have never been to this part of Spain but we enjoyed what we got to see of the Island of Mallorca, Barcelona, Madrid and Toledo. We would certainly enjoy experiencing more of Spain. It is a lovely country from what we have seen. Up votes and will share.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Yes, I have only begun to understand it.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you Frank. Hope you'll visit one day.

    • Blackspaniel1 profile image

      Blackspaniel1 

      3 years ago

      Interesting treatment of history, the history of this region has so many facets.

    • Frank Atanacio profile image

      Frank Atanacio 

      3 years ago from Shelton

      informative, descriptive.. choose a word.. very well done hub aesta.. never been but would love to see it in real form.. great hub my friend :)

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Thank you so much for the vote.

    • Writer Fox profile image

      Writer Fox 

      3 years ago from the wadi near the little river

      I really enjoyed your descriptions of this city and especially appreciated your photos. Voted up and interesting!

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 

      3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Gorgeous photos! The views are most encouraging and Cordoba looks a great place of travel. Voted up. interesting and useful

    • tobusiness profile image

      Jo Alexis-Hagues 

      3 years ago from Lincolnshire, U.K

      aesta, this is a fabulous hub! very interesting information and stunningly beautiful photos. I haven't visited Spain in many years, but if I return in the future, Cordoba will be high on my list. Voted up and sharing.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Yes, with the Flamenco dance, the fun starts.

    • Dressage Husband profile image

      Stephen J Parkin 

      3 years ago from Pine Grove, Nova Scotia, Canada

      Such a beautiful and historic city part of a great empire. I really love the Spanish and classical guitar music from this region too! Interesting, useful and beautiful Hub.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Elsie, you are very generous with your comments. This is one place I really enjoyed in Spain.

    • Elsie Hagley profile image

      Elsie Hagley 

      3 years ago from New Zealand

      Beautiful photos, I love reading articles that the writer has been there seen it and share their pictures with us.

      You are very lucky to have been to so many places around the world.

      You must have enough knowledge in your mind about your visits that you could make a film. Thanks for sharing.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 

      3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Thank you for the history lesson and the wonderful photos. Very beautiful area.

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      It is worth visiting because of the many interesting historical highlights in the city.

    • Vellur profile image

      Nithya Venkat 

      3 years ago from Dubai

      Enjoyed the trip through Cordoba, Spain. Great photographs, this is a place I would love to visit!

    • aesta1 profile imageAUTHOR

      Mary Norton 

      3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Peggy W, thank you for pinning it. Barcelona is beautiful, too. It is interesting to see all these cultural layers that have influenced Spain.

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 

      3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      A great lesson here. I enjoyed reading and learning more about an interesting part of the world. I have not been there and sounds a lovely place.

    • Jackie Lynnley profile image

      Jackie Lynnley 

      3 years ago from The Beautiful South

      Sorry I couldn't vote because I have not been there but surely wish I could! Fantastic photos and lucky you!

    • peachpurple profile image

      peachy 

      3 years ago from Home Sweet Home

      wow, this is a beautiful place, i see you travel a lot

    • colorfulone profile image

      Susie Lehto 

      3 years ago from Minnesota

      I would love to see the sights in Cordoba in all its historical charm and grandeur. Mary, thank you for sharing about this wonderful place, and for a great photo tour.

      Very interesting!

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      3 years ago from Houston, Texas

      I really enjoyed reading this and seeing your photos of Cordoba, Spain. The only parts of Spain that we got to briefly visit was Madrid, Toledo, Barcelona and the Island of Mallorca...but we loved every minute of it.

      We saw places in Toledo that had Jewish, Christian, Roman and Moorish influences...all in the same building. Thanks for writing this interesting hub! Pinning it to my Spain board and will tweet, G+ and also share on HP.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)