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Castles, forts, pagodas, and temples: Historic Cities of East Asia

Updated on September 23, 2015
Pingyao market street
Pingyao market street | Source
Temple of the Six Banyans, Guangzhou, China
Temple of the Six Banyans, Guangzhou, China | Source

Guangzhou, China

Guangzhou, China (mainland). Formerly known as Canton, Guangzhou is an old and huge city located along the Pearl River. Usually not described as an attractive city – growth is what drives this city, China’s largest by some estimates, the city nevertheless has historical merit and makes a visit worthwhile. Its proximity to Hong Kong – about 75 miles - makes the city very accessible to tourists. The city has an old center where most of the historical buildings are located including Liwan, Fangcun, and Shamian Island. The Temple of the Six Banyan Trees dates to the 6th century. Nearby the Liurong Temple has 17 stories and dates to the third century. Colonial buildings marking the 19th century European trading presence can be found in number on ShamianIsland which became a foreign trading enclave in 1859. Also along the waterfront is the Sacred Heart Cathedral which dates to the 1860s and remains the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop. It’s the oldest Catholic church in China. Guangzhou was also the home of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. He was born in a provincial village near the city and the city has memorialized him with the eponymous Memorial Hall as well as the President Sun Yat-sen Museum.

Guangzhou, China

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A markerTemple of the Six Banyan Trees, Guangzhou -
Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, 87 Liu Rong Lu, ZhongShan Liu Lu, Yuexiu Qu, Guangzhou Shi, Guangdon
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B markerShamian -
Sha Mian Nan Jie, Liwan Qu, Guangzhou Shi, Guangdong Sheng, China, 510175
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C markerLuirong Temple -
Liurong Temple, Zhongshan 6th Road, Yuexiu, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 510030
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D markerSun Yat-sen Museum, Guangzhou -
Dr.Sun Yat-sen's Memorial Hall, 259 Dong Feng Zhong Lu, Yuexiu Qu, Guangzhou Shi, Guangdong Sheng, C
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St. Paul's, Macau.
St. Paul's, Macau. | Source
View from Monte Forte, Macau.
View from Monte Forte, Macau. | Source
A-Ma Temple, Macau.
A-Ma Temple, Macau. | Source

Macau, China

Macau, China (mainland). Macau, located in China’s southeast corner, is most famous for its Portuguese past. The settlement was finally handed over to China in 1999 after 442 years under a Portuguese flag. It will remain an autonomous region until 2049. Macau is also known for its casinos which are still flourishing. Once you get beyond the glitz and sleek high-rise buildings there is another part of the city which reminds you of its historical and colonial roots. Start at the Largo de Senado the main square, a wide expanse surrounded by Portuguese colonial buildings. Just up the hill from this is Macau’s most famous landmark the ruins of St. Paul’s Cathedral at the foot of Monte Forte, now housing the Macau Museum within its air-conditioned walls. The fort has excellent views of the city and the museum beautifully interprets the colony’s past. With close to 30 buildings included as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, it’s hard to see it all in one day. Closer to the ferry terminal overlooking the OuterHarbor is the Guia Fort and Lighthouse accessible by footpath and cable car. Just down the hill is the Sun Yat-sen House, where the father of Chinese nationalism stayed while in Macau. The current structure contains memorabilia and dates from the 1930s. The A-Ma Temple is also of great interest and is the oldest Chinese temple in the city located among granite boulders and across the street from the Macau Maritime Museum. Macau is very close to Hong Kong – 45 minutes by ferry.

Macau, China

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A markerLargo de Senado, Macau -
Senado Square, Largo do Senado, Macau
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B markerGuia Forte, Macau -
Guia Fort & Lighthouse, Macau
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C markerRuins of St. Paul -
Ruins of St. Paul's, Macau
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D markerSun Yat-sen House, Macau -
Doutor Sun Yat Sen Memorial House, 1 Avenida Sidonio Pais, Macau
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E markerA-Ma Temple -
A-Ma Temple, Macau
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Market Tower, Pingyao
Market Tower, Pingyao | Source

Pingyao, China

Pingyao, China (mainland). Well known for its delicious beef, Pingyao is also a historical treasure with a Ming Dynasty city wall and building complexes which number as many as 4,000 structures. It is a UNESCO World heritage Site and includes the Wang mansion, the largest in China which contains 1,118 rooms and 123 courtyards within its sprawling complex. In many respects Pingyao is a looking glass into classical China with homes of all different types, poor and rich, enclosed in four walls surrounding a courtyard. The city walls is anchored by 72 watch towers surrounded by a moat shaped like a turtle with the market tower in the city’s center. The city has numerous temples as well including the Zhenguo Temple and its Hall of Ten Thousand Buddhas. The city is also remarkable in that it has a symmetrical arrangement which was not untypical of ancient Chinese planning but a rarity today. Don’t miss Pingyao as it reflects what old Chinese cities looked like before they were razed, developed or destroyed.

Pingyao, China

A markerZhenguo Temple -
Zhenguo Temple, Pingyao, Jinzhong, Shanxi, China
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Gulangyu in foreground with Xiamen business district across river.
Gulangyu in foreground with Xiamen business district across river. | Source
Heavenly King Hall, Xiamen, China.
Heavenly King Hall, Xiamen, China. | Source

Xiamen (Amoy), China

Xiamen (Amoy), China (mainland). Xiamen was formerly known as Amoy. It looks out over the Taiwan Strait, just six miles from Taiwanese territory Jinmen islands and has like many large Chinese cities a fast-paced growth outlook as well as an old, historic section which dates to the 1840s when the British used it as Treaty Port although settlement in the area dates to the 3rd century. Generally the city is beautiful and considered “well suitable” by Chinese standards. Head to Gulangyu Island for great views of the Xiamen skyline and explore the twisted streets and old colonial houses without the annoyance of cars – they are not allowed here. Other historic monuments in the city are the Tang Dynasty Nanputuo (South Putuo) Temple, a national treasure. Heaven King Hall is the highlight of this temple with multiple pavilions and pagodas. If the Hulishan Fortress is not your liking try the Botanical Garden. The former looks out over the sea, a 19th century bastion with a strange mix of cement which includes sugar, glutinous rice, camphor, and tree sap.

Xiamen, China

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A markerNanputuo -
Nan Pu Tuo Lu, Siming Qu, Xiamen Shi, Fujian Sheng, China, 361005
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B markerGulangyu -
Gulangyu Island, Siming, Xiamen, China, 361002
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C markerBotanical Garden, Xiamen -
Xiamen Botanical Garden Ticket Office, Wan Shi Lu, Siming Qu, Xiamen Shi, Fujian Province, China, 36
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D markerHeavenly King Hall, Xiamen -
Hall of Heavenly Kings, Jimei, Xiamen, Fujian, China, 361022
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Kanazawa Castle, Kanazawa, Japan.
Kanazawa Castle, Kanazawa, Japan. | Source

Kanazawa, Japan.

Kanazawa, Japan. Located in Ishikawa Prefecture, far from the major metropolitan areas, Kanazawa sits on Japan’s west coast overlooking the Sea of Japan. The city’s historic centerpiece is the castle and the history which surrounds it. Originally built in the fifteenth century, when many of Japan’s castles were constructed, the complex became the focus of the Ikko-ikki, a Buddhist sect which ousted the governor and established the “Peasant’s Kingdom” in contrast to various Shogunates, which were ruled by clans. Not unlike most of the Japan’s castles the present site contains some well reconstructed buildings as fire and other disasters left few original structures in places. The Ishikawa Gate and the Sanjikken Longhouse are original remnants. Explore some of the streets near the castle which have original samurai and merchant houses. Other sites worth a visit are the Kenrokuen Garden in the castle grounds, the Kanazawa Gold Leaf Museum, and Seisonkaku Villa.

Kanazawa, Japan

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A markerKanazawa Castle -
Kanazawa Castle Park, 1-1 Marunouchi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 920-0937, Japan
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B markerKanazawa Gold Leaf Museum -
Kanazawa Yasue Gold Leaf Museum, 1 Chome-5-10 Kitayasue, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 920-0022, Japan
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C markerSeisonkaku Villa -
Seisonkaku Villa, 1-2 Kenrokumachi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 920-0936, Japan
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D markerKenrokuen Garden -
Kenroku-en, 1 Kenrokumachi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 920-0936, Japan
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Bikan District warehouses, Kurashiki, Japan.
Bikan District warehouses, Kurashiki, Japan. | Source

Kurashiki, Japan

Kurashiki, Japan. Kurashiki is located in the Okayama Prefecture, along the crowded corridor roughly mid distance between Osaka and Hiroshima fronting Japan’s Inland Sea. Its Bikan district is what makes it interesting and a rarity among cities in Japan. Old warehouses built between the 17th and 19th centuries line a canal. Electric lines are kept out to accent its authenticity. Formerly the houses of merchants the buildings of the Bikan are marked by their distinct white walls and black tiles. There were many such towns in Japan but few have survived with such integrity. A similar example can be found in Tochigi, in the Kanto region, although on a smaller scale. Kurashiki’s Bikan was also influenced by the industrial age: the Ohara spinning mill is an extant monument to its mercantile-industrial past. Another incentive to visiting Kurashiki is the Ohara Art Museum, the first of its kind in Japan dedicated to Western art. Founded in 1930, El Greco, Monet, and Renoir are all on display as well as other western greats. The museum is located near the Bikan District.

Kurashiki, Japan

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A markerOhara Art Museum -
Ohara Museum of Art, 1 Chome-1-1-15 Chūō, Kurashiki-shi, Okayama-ken 710-8575, Japan
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B markerKurashiki Train Station -
Kurashiki Station, 1 Chome-1 Achi, Kurashiki-shi, Okayama-ken 710-0055, Japan
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craft shop, Takayama, Japan.
craft shop, Takayama, Japan. | Source

Takayama, Japan

Takayama, Japan. Also known as Hida Takayama, the city sits in the mountains on the Miyagawa River in Gifu Prefecture. The city is a center of traditional Japanese crafts such as carpentry, lacquerware, and pottery. The heart of the city, Sanmachi, is also the old center and a good place to see these crafts on display and for sale without the over compensating neon and commercialization which typify other Japanese cities. The carpentry used to build the three-story Hida Kobubun-ji and the Ankoku-jiTemple are particularly unique; the latter dates to 1408. Not to miss is the Hida Minzoku Cultural Village, an open-air museum, which features traditional houses spanning the last couple of centuries. The houses of these traditional are well-known for their snow-repellant roofs.

Takayama, Japan

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A markerHida Minzoku Folk Village -
Hida Minzoku Mura Folk Village, 1 Chome-590 Kamiokamotomachi, Takayama-shi, Gifu-ken 506-0055, Japan
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B markerHidakokubun-ji -
Hidakokubun-ji Temple, 1 Chome-83 Sōwamachi, Takayama-shi, Gifu-ken 506-0007, Japan
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Rock carvings, Namsan, Gyeongju, South Korea.
Rock carvings, Namsan, Gyeongju, South Korea. | Source
Bunhwangsa pagoda, Gyeongju, South Korea.
Bunhwangsa pagoda, Gyeongju, South Korea. | Source

Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.

Gyeongju, Republic of Korea (South Korea). On the opposite end of the country from Seoul, Gyeongju is near the sea while having its back up against the mountains, typical of cities on this rocky peninsula. Despite its manufacturing base the city has a rich history: it was the capital of the Silla dynasty for three hundred years between the 7th and 10th centuries. Designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites the city has four historic areas. Mount Namsan has dozens of temples and pagodas. The area was a focal point of Korean Buddhism and today the best way to see all of Namsan’s treasures are by hiking paths. The Buddhist rock carving is yet another highlight. Not to miss is the Cheomseongdae Observatory, an ancient astronomical looking post. Royal fortresses and tombs are also worthwhile including the Heavenly Horse Tomb and the Wolseong fortress. The city once housed the largest temple in Korea, the HwangnyongsaTemple, now in ruins. If you arrive in April the cherry blossoms are spectacular as is the Grotto of Seokguram any time of year.

Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.

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A markerCheomseongdae Observatory -
Cheomseongdae, 169-5 경상북도 경주시 첨성로 South Korea
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B markerSeokguram -
Seokguram, 873-243 Bulguk-ro, Bulguk-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
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C markerWolseong -
Wolseong-dong, Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
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Fort Zeelandia/Fort Anping, Tainan, Taiwan
Fort Zeelandia/Fort Anping, Tainan, Taiwan | Source
Zhuxi Temple, Tainan, Taiwan
Zhuxi Temple, Tainan, Taiwan | Source

Tainan, Taiwan

Tainan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Tainan retains its sense of history better than other large cities in Taiwan. It also had a foreign enclave controlled by the Dutch who built Fort Zeelandia (also known as Fort Anping) in the 17th century. The city is also famous for its temples, the most famous being the First Confucian Temple-School built in 1665. Anping district hold numerous old houses many with the talismans used both decoratively and practically to ward to evil. Ming dynasty tombs can also be seen at Tseng Chen-Yang Mu. The night markets are a must visit and the city is well known for them. Other temples that are of interest include Koxinga’s Shrine, built in 1663, and the various temples dedicated to the city god Chen-Huang: Tainan Fu Cheng-Huang Miao, Hsien Cheng-Huang Miao, and Anping Chen Cheng-Huang Miao.

Tainan, Taiwan

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A markerAnping, Tainan -
Anping District, Tainan City, Taiwan 708
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B markerFort Anping, Tainan -
Anping Old Fort, No. 82, Guosheng Road, Anping District, Tainan City, Taiwan 708
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C markerKoxinga's Shrine -
Koxinga Ancestral Shrine, West Central District, Tainan City, Taiwan 700
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Historic Cities of East Asia

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A markerGuangzhou, China -
Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
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B markerMacau, China -
Macau
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C markerPingyao, China -
Pingyao, Jinzhong, Shanxi, China
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D markerXiamen, China -
Xiamen, Fujian, China
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E markerKanazawa, Japan -
Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan
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F markerKurashiki, Japan -
Kurashiki, Okayama Prefecture, Japan
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G markerTakayama, Japan -
Takayama, Gifu Prefecture, Japan
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H markerGyeongju, South Korea -
Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
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I markerTainan, Taiwan -
Tainan City, Taiwan
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