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Dead Yard and Nine Night Jamaican Culture

Updated on February 28, 2014
Cardisa profile image

Carolee is a passionate writer with a love for learning and teaching. She is a published author, poet, blogger, and content creator.

Kumina Band
Kumina Band
People at a dead yard
People at a dead yard
Maracas - instrument used in Kumina
Maracas - instrument used in Kumina

What is the Dead Yard?

A very traditional Jamaican culture or Jamaican custom is the Dead Yard. It is a little piece of Jamaican history and is very much a part of the Jamaican people.

When someone passes away in Jamaica, the entire community supports the family. One does not have to know the person who dies to lend support. Support comes from friends of friends and friends of family; even non affiliated persons from the community or neighboring communities give their support. Giving this support in time of grief has become a Jamaican culture.

What is this support I keep talking about? The night of the day or the first night after the passing away, is the start of the dead yard. The dead yard is not only a place but an event that last for the period commencing on the day the person dies to the night before the funeral.

The first night of the dead yard at the home of the deceased, a gathering of supporters come to show their sorrow and comfort the family. A game of dominoes and a few flasks or rum might mark the commencement of the night's ritual.

Usually the game of dominoes and drinking of rum escalates into playing of music and eventually the main event, Kumina.

Drumming, primarily an African tradition or African custom which slaves used to communicate with each other from plantation to plantation, is now a big part of the Jamaican culture. Playing of drums dated back to the early 1300 in Africa. In Jamaica the slaves who could not to see each other to talk, used the drums to send messages and news. The Plantation owners thought they were having their own kind of fun. When slavery became less conformed drumming was allowed for African celebrations.

Post slavery drumming for weddings and childbirth gave way to the announcement of the passing of a loved one. Thus the birth of Kumina, the music of the dead.

Over ninety percent of all deceased in the island of Jamaica have a Kumina band during the period between the passing and burial to play the drums.

Playing the drums is not a simple who wants to play or just hitting to find rhythm. Nearly all Kumina drummers are of Maroon decent. There has to be something in the bood, a calling from the ancestors. Kumina playing is a gift from the spirits, not just anyone can touch the drums.

During the dead yard, the ground where the drummers play has to be prepared spiritually, by sprinkling of white rum, or the blood of a white fowl (chicken) or the blood of a goat. This part of the Jamaican culture can be a bit scary but seen as necessary for the spirits.

Kumina at a Dead Yard - Jamaica

Duppy Bands

Another part of this Jamaican culture for the dead yard is using the Duppy Band which is the alternative to the Kumina. There are some Jamaicans who are scared of the Kumina or they are Christians who want to keep away from the Paganism that Kumina portray so they use the Duppy Band instead . The Duppy Band consists of a guitarist, drummer, keyboard, maracas, tamberines and the lead singer. The sound is quite like the Kumina except for the other instruments in the band, like the guitar and keyboard.

Duppy in Jamaica means 'ghost' or 'dead'.Duppy Band means Dead people Band or a Band that plays music for the dead.

The Sound of the Duppy Band

The Nine Night

The Nine Night simply means the Ninth Night of the dead. Counting from the first night after the person dies to nine nights hence. The person is usually buried the day after.

Traditionally, the dead needed to rest for at least nine days and nights in order for their spirits to pass. Such superstition has developed into a practice not to bury the dead until he rises on the third day, grieves for himself and takes whatever possessions he wishes to have in the afterlife during the other six days.

It is very rare that any dead in the Island is buried earlier than the nine days.

Due to the economic conditions during recent times the dead is sometimes buried after longer periods. In this case the Nine Night is pushed back to the night before the Funeral.

The final night of the Dead Yard is the highlight of the period. Sometimes both Duppy Bands and Kumina are used.

During the early hours of the night the Church members nearby are invited for a Prayer Meeting. Songs are sung and prayers offered up for the grieving family. This usually last for 2-3 hours.

Lots of liquor and food is served or sold at a Dead Yard and mostly on the Ninth Night.

The end of the Nine Night will see dawn and a lot of drunks.

Traditional Dead Yard Food and Drink

Not only did people from all around gathered to listen and dance to the very addictive sounds of the Drums or the Band but they also gather for the food that they knew would be served free of cost.

Traditionally it was fried fish and fried dumplings or slices of bread and a good cup of hot chocolate made from freshly parched chocolates. The cocoa is picked and the seeds removed and put to dry in the sun for a couple of days. The cocoa is then parched in hot stones or in a large kettle. The roasted seeds are then pounded in a large Mortar and Pestle and rolled into balls. When the balls are dry they are grated to make the hot chocolate. Coconut milk, sugar and nutmegs are used to flavor this drink.

For the strong of heart a good mug of freshly made coffee was preferred. The coffee would be locally grown by a farmer, friend or family. The beans would be put in the sun to dry for a couple of days then roasted in a large kettle then ground to a powder. The difference between the cocoa and coffee is the cocoa has quite a lot of fat so it gets pasty when pounded.

The Jamaican made rum, J. Wray & Nephew White Overproof Rum, is and has always been the primary spirit of choice. This is drunk with a little water or for the more adventurous, some ice cubes with Pepsi or Coco-cola.

The modern generation has their own ideas about what the dead yard should be about and it has become a reason to meet and have fun. I have been invited on a date to the Dead Yard a couple of times.

The food has changed somewhat to sandwiches made of corned beef, tuna or cheese. A cup of soup made from goat meat, chicken, chciken feet or fish might be offered, depending on the family's preferences.

There is no chocolate or coffee, but juice instead. The rum might be free but all other liquor is now sold for profit. The younger patrons prefer guinness stout, beer, tonic wines, redbull, and the other energy drinks on the market.


The dead yard is a vital part of the Jamaican culture. You don't have to use a kumina or duppy bands to have a dead yard. You can gather and play reggae or gospel music so long as you have some sort of gathering. The dead yard is an event that you must experience.

© 2011 Carolee Samuda


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    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      7 years ago from Jamaica

      Hello Krbsearson. Thank you for stopping by my hubspace. I have turned on the copyright notice which should tell you which year it was published.

      Will you be publishing online or is it for school? I would like to see your finished article if possible,

    • krbsearson profile image


      7 years ago from Lake Ronkonkoma, New York

      I really enjoyed reading your article. I am writing a paper on Nine Night and wanted to use your article as one of my works cited, but there is no date. Could you possibly provide me with the date that you posted this?

      Thank you

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      8 years ago from Jamaica

      Hi Josephine.

      In Jamaica, the dead yard is accepted as just that and people are scared of it but they don't really associate it with Obeah or Voodoo but I do know that Haiti has similar practices.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      if u sprinkling blood of goat or chicken where i come from people will say u do voodoo.ur culture is similar with ur cousin from haiti-dominica republique they do dead yard too.where i come from all the dead are in the cemetery.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      8 years ago from Jamaica

      Thank you Ava.

      Condolences to you and your family. The dead yard is where people come together to console the family.

      Thanks for stopping by, glad I could be of help.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      My father recently passed at the ripe age of 91. Being of Jamaican parentage I was interested in getting a clearer picture of a custom I've always heard about but never knew from where it was derived.. Thank you for a very I depth and interesting lesson.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Hello Vinaya, I hope to bring more Jamaican culture to my Hubspace. Thank you.

    • Vinaya Ghimire profile image

      Vinaya Ghimire 

      9 years ago from Nepal

      I'm so much interested in cultural anthropology. I really enjoyed Jamaican culture.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Thanks Alladream!

    • Alladream74 profile image

      Victor Mavedzenge 

      9 years ago from Oakland, California

      Thanks for this peak into Jamaican culture. Really interesting.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Yes Flora, it's quite similar to those cultures.

    • FloraBreenRobison profile image


      9 years ago

      The celebration aspect sounds like the wake in Irish and Italian cultures.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Hi Polly, Christians find this kind of practice very pagan. This norm originated from our African ancestors.

    • Pollyannalana profile image


      9 years ago from US

      So interesting Cardisa to know these things that are so unusual to us but I think it is a very kind tribute that people who don't even know you have ceremony for your dead. I don't know why it would bother anyone, surely God Himself would see no wrong in this.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Thanks Sky321. Thanks for the visit and leaving a comment.

    • Sky321 profile image


      9 years ago from Canada

      Excellent and informative hub! I love the music!

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Hi DeAnna, thank you for taking the time to visit. I have to research some other Caribbean cultures, sometimes we take it for granted that not all Caribbean islands have the same norms and practices.

    • editorsupremo profile image


      9 years ago from London, England

      What a lovely hub to the traditions of Jamaican culture for the dearly departed. My heritage is caribbean (Bajan & Montserration)but I didn't know anything about nine night until a relative of a Jamaican friend passed away. There are obviously different traditions in the islands so far as death is concerned, but it is good to know the real meaning behind the nine night. Thanks



    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Thanks for visiting Nell. By superstition, nine is a very valuable number.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      9 years ago from England

      Hi, what an amazing ceremony, and what a lovely tribute to the departed. I didn't realise that it was called this, nine must be a special number because even with the tarot cards it means the ending or dead, strange, I must look it up, thanks for the info, I love learning about other cultures, cheers nell

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Hello Rich, I would love for you to do some hubs on English and Thai cultures.

      I will do my best to present my homeland cultures as best IO can.

      Thanks for stopping by.

    • Richawriter profile image

      Richard J ONeill 

      9 years ago from Bangkok, Thailand

      Wow! Its always nice to learn about other cultures and how they do things and this tradition of Jamaica's is very interesting. So different from the way we deal with death in the UK.

      Please write more on your traditions and culture. Perhaps I should write about English culture and Thai culture.

      Great Hub!

      Take care. Rich :)

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Thank you Always Exploring. I am glad you Explored this hub. I too like to learn of different cultures from other societies.

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      9 years ago from Southern Illinois

      This is really interesting. It's so nice to learn the different cultures around the world. Thank you.

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Hello Dexter, you are right. Without knowing it, the people see the Dead Yard as a celebration.

      Thanks for visiting and have yourself a great day.

    • Dexter Yarbrough profile image

      Dexter Yarbrough 

      9 years ago from United States

      Hi Cardisa! What an informative hub! I like how the community comes together to support the family - even if they don't know them. It seems to me that the decedent's life is being celebrated as opposed to everyone being sad. Is this true? Thanks for sharing some Jamaican culture!

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      You are very welcomed Mr. Epigramman!

    • epigramman profile image


      9 years ago

      ..thank you for this history and cultural lesson my friend ......

    • Cardisa profile imageAUTHOR

      Carolee Samuda 

      9 years ago from Jamaica

      Thanks WillStar, that was really fast.


    • WillStarr profile image


      9 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

      Fascinating article! Up and awesome!


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