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India Tourism (Agra); Taj Mahal and Agra Fort
Mughal dynasty was one of the greatest historical memories of India. It still preserve in the form of various architectural creations like Taj Mahal, forts, gates etc. The Mughal team was actually entered in to Indian sub-continent from modern Uzbekistan. They were also claimed the descendant from Genghis Khan and Timur. They got the administrative power of a wide area after the first battle of Panipatt in 1526. Babar was the first ruler. The Mughal dynasty lost its power only by 1857 and the last ruler was Bahadur Shah II. Even the Mughal came from abroad, they did not exploited or squeezed the country. But they settled in India and ruled the country for a long time. Their official language was Persian and they introduced metallic form of money. Which considering as a historical milestone of India. Above all, the country enjoyed social harmony and peace especially during the period of Akbar and Aurangazeb. They followed secularism, which is the lifeblood of India even today. Here the coming words provided a brief explanation about Taj Mahal and Agra fort, two masterpieces of Mughal dynasty.
Agra fort is one of the world heritage sites according to UNESCO. It is located at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is near to Taj Mahal for a distance about 2.5 Kilo Meters. The present design of Agra Fort is the creativity of Mughal dynasty. Actually it was an oldest fort. It was held by the Hindu ruler Sikarwar Rajputs in 11th century. Sikandar Lodi was a ruler of Delhi who moved to Agra Fort. He continued there until his death. Later his son, Ibrahim Lodi continued at Agra Fort until the first battle of Panipatt in 1526. During the war he killed and Mughal dynasty came in to force under the ruler Babar. There after many valuables kept at Agra Fort such as Koh-i-noor. Agra Fort consists of various administrative offices of that time such as bank, accounts etc. There are mosques also, which built for separately for men and women workers of the fort. Later Humayun become the ruler in 1530 and crowned at Agra Fort. Then it captured by Hindu King Hem Chandra Vikramaditya. He then forwarded to capture Delhi, but was defeated by another great Mughal ruler Akbar in the second battle of Panipatt in 1556. Then Akbar shifted his capital to Agra. At that time the fort was in a ruining condition. Akbar rebuilt it with red sandstone from Rajastan. For the completion of Akbar’s desire, it took about 8 years and finished in 1573. Again during 18th century it came under the control of Marathas and by 1803 it came under the control of British power. The same place witnessed Indian national movement of 1857.
Agra Fort is situated in 94 acres of land. Its outside wall is built at a height of 70 feet. Its construction is amazing, which helped the rulers to be safe from the foreign attacks. There are four gates to the fort. One of them is facing Yamuna River. Delhi gate and Lahore gates are two important gates. Lahor gate renamed to Amar Singh Gate. Delhi gate is not allowed for the public. Visitors are entering to the fort via Amar Singh Gate. After the entrance gate, Jahangir palace is the first seen. Around this there is a beautiful garden. In the inside of the fort, many buildings can see. Everywhere the architecture has an amazing taste. Buildings consist of personal rooms of daughters of Shah Jahan, fort workers, Private room of ruler…. There is a big room which is air conditioned with an unbelievable technology of that time. Water circulating pipes are fitted inside the bricks. When the temperature is higher, water used to circulate throughout the bricks. In this way the temperature will adjust automatically. There is also a grape garden of that time. The rulers constructed a mosque for women workers for doing prayer. And also the rulers arranged facility for a small market to make trade for the people who are working inside the fort. Another important memory is that, the prison where the ruler Shah Jahan lived his last days. Actually it is not a prison but a luxurious building with a balcony facing Taj Mahal. Its walls and pillars are constructed with white marble and inlay with valuable stones. Another important seen is the “hall of public audience”. Where main official meeting were conducted in the presence of ruler and other administrative officials. On the right side of the “hall of public audience” (also called ‘Diwan I Am’) a mosque is constructed, but visitors are prohibited to enter there. Now, it is under the control of Indian Government.
Taj Mahal is a world renowned masterpiece of Mughal dynasty. It is located at 3 kilo meters from Agra, Utter Pradesh, India, near to Yamuna River. Taj Mahal means ‘Crown of Palaces’ and it is regarded as one of the wonders of the world. It built with white marbles for the memory of Mughal ruler Shah Jahan’s wife Mumtaz. It is also known as Mumtaz Mahal. People are regarding it as the symbol of purity of women.
There are three gates to Tajmahal. Taj Gate is the formal gate created with amazing creativity at a height of about 100 feet. The gate was built with silver by Shah Jahan, but later it attacked and melted. Now, a big copper gate fitted by British. Near to the main entrance gate, there is a small mosque built by Shah Jahan in memory of his first wife. And also there is a small tomb of Stalunnisa, who served for Mumtaz. The gate sculpts with few versions from Holy Quran. After the entrance, a wide and beautiful garden welcomes the visitors to a wonderland. The garden is not only blessed with trees and flowers but also other lives like deer, peacock, birds etc. There is 412 feet of distance from main entrance gate to Taj Mahal. In between that, the way is constructed with bricks. On the center of the way a small furrow is constructed with flowing of water. Taj Mahal and its bottoms are purely made with white marbles. The first bottom is constructed at a height of 4.5 feet and the second bottom with 18 feet. Taj Mahal is the monument in the center of these bottoms. Taj Mahal is constructed with octopus shape. There are four minarets on the four corner of the second bottom. Each minaret is looking like unique at a height of 140 feet in round shape with the support of ladder. There are many beautiful domes on Taj Mhal. A big dome can see on the center- top of Taj Mahal with a shape like lotus. On the center room of Taj Mhal, Mumtaz’s tomb can see. Shah Jahan’s tomb can also see near to Mumtaz’s tomb. The room is beautiful with precious stones, carved versions from Holy Quran with black color on the white marble. There was a lamp fitted by Shah Jahan, which too robbed. Now, a lamp of copper is there fitted by British in 1905 during Lord Carson.
There is mosque on the right side and a building like mosque is on the left side of Taj Mahal. The outer wall of Taj Mahal’s boundary is constructed with red sandstones. On the back side of Taj Mhal, Yamuna River is flowing by swallowing the beauty of Taj Mhal. Actually, now its history and purity are exploited. But the beauty of Taj Mhal is still spreading smell of love.
Taj Mahal means ‘Crown of Palaces’ is one of the wonders of the world. It built with white marbles for the memory of Mughal ruler Shah Jahan’s wife Mumtaz. So, it also known as Mumtaz Mahal. People seeing it as a symbol of purity of women.
A Brief History
Mumtaz was the third wife of Shah Jahan. He loved her too much. She died during the maternity of their fourteenth child. After the death of wife, Shah Jahan isolated without love. Taj Mahal was a dream of Shah Janhan. In 1632, a renowned architect Ustad Isa Khan presented a wooden model of Taj Mhal before Shah Jahan. After that the construction started. Many skilled workers from modern Middle East countries arrived in India. The ruler took the responsibility of workers’ family. A separate colony called ‘Taj Ganj’ was established for workers. Many materials carried to India from different corner of the world for the completion of Taj Mahl’s construction. Many visitors also arrived in India to see the project. Its construction is completed by taking 22 years and thousands of workers used their efforts. On the top of the main entrance gate, 22 small domes can see. Each of them are representing each years.
Thinking from the part of social condition, the country experienced misery because of huge spending for the construction of Taj Mahal. Aurangazeb was the son of Shah Jahan, who functioned as the governor of Dhakkan of that time. he helped father by sending too much amount of money. But, Shah Jahan spent everything for the construction of Taj Mhal instead of spending for social welfare activities. Aurangazeb wanted to strengthen the collapsed society. So, he advised his father. But his elder brother Dwara ignored Aurangazeb. So that he declared war against his brother and at last Dwara killed. Shah Jahan gave the authority to his son. Aurangazeb constructed a luxurious prison in Agra Fort facing Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan died there by breathing the beauty of Taj Mhal. Thereafter, the Mughal dynasty enjoyed its pecks of glory under the powerful ruler Aurangazeb.