Napoleon in Cairo
Napoleon entered the city of Cairo under the protection of his forces from all sides, and his intention to consolidate his occupation of the country by showing friendliness to the Egyptians and to establish a relationship of friendship with the Ottoman state, and to respect the beliefs of the people of the country and maintain their traditions and customs; to be able to establish the military base, and turn Egypt into a strong colony, Strong to the British Empire.
On the second day of his entry into Cairo, July 25, 1798, Napoleon established the Diwan of Cairo, a Diwan [?] Consultant of nine senior sheikhs and scholars headed by Sheikh Abdullah al-Sharqawi. To the rule of the city of Cairo, and the appointment of the chiefs of staff, but this court did not have the final authority in any matter, and even know the purpose of Napoleon of this office appears in his will to Kleber, which says (if you want to rule Egypt for a long time you respect the feelings of religious people and respect for freedoms) The purpose of the Cairo Council was to activate civil life in the modern sense and its participation alongside the administration and the ruling authorities in the country. It is one of the important ideas that accompanied the French Revolution from the necessity of activating the role of society and community participation in governance and governance. The theory of social contract is based on the fact that the relationship between the administration and the people is based on the existence of a virtual contract between the people on the one hand and the ruler and administration, which requires greater community participation in administration and governance. Thus, the parliamentary assemblies were one of the basic requirements It is worth mentioning that there is document No. 3618 of November 4, 1798, in which Bonaparte signs a military decision to pay P Ransa salaries of the sheikhs of the Diwan, namely Sheikh Ismail Al-Barawi, Sheikh Yusuf Al-Musli, Sheikh Abdul Wahab Al-Shabrawi, Sheikh Suleiman Al-Jusaki and Sheikh Ahmed Al-Sharqawi. It seems that these had not joined the scholars of the Bureau in its first composition.
Map of the French campaign on Egypt
And from Cairo issued orders to manage the affairs of Egypt through Arab libraries composed of sheikhs and scientists have an advisory opinion of the administration, the cooperation of the administration in governance, a reflection of French ideas that accompanied the French Revolution and had a great echo in France at the time and continued later and the beginning of community participation in Governance in France and the world.
- He also continued to collect taxes imposed by the Mamluk invaders on the people of the country to finance his army. He sat down with the local leaders. Napoleon Bonaparte became a Muslim ruler named Bonaparte Pasha. He was called Muslims by the name of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was walking around wearing Oriental clothes, turban and robes. He visited the mosque on Fridays and contributed to the traditional religious rituals by praying and asking Muslims to help him to flourish in Egypt. He held a meeting with the scientists of the campaign to develop plans to eradicate plague, introduce new industries, develop Egyptian education systems, improve the laws in force, Repairing irrigation and irrigation systems, and linking the Nile to the Red Sea.
In July 1799, the Egyptian Scientific Institute organized Egyptian scientists and campaign scientists. It was the scientists who prepared the 24 volumes that were funded and published by the French government entitled Description of Egypt (1809-1828) Description de L`Egypte. One of these scientists, In 1899, the writings of Thomas Young in 1814 and Jean-François Champollion in 1821 established the basis for the method of translating hieroglyphic texts They opened the door to "modern" Europe The ancient Egyptians are surprisingly complex and mature, so the discovery of Rosetta Stone is one of the most important scientific findings of Napoleon's campaign against Egypt.
Abu Qir Marine site and the destruction of the campaign fleet
When Napoleon left his fleet in Alexandria for Cairo, he commanded Napoleon (Francois-Paul Brueys) to unload all of his cargo for the troops and then sail as fast as possible to Corfu, which the French had seized , And ordered him to take all measures to avoid the intervention of the British, but the bad weather last sailing Brueys, and during this delay anchored his fleet in the Gulf of Abu Qir nearby, and there on 13 July 1798 saw him and attacked him quickly, and appeared two opposing armies are equal: The English Navy Gu 41 French warships and ships, 31 French warships and four frigates, but the French sailors were more eager to return home and were not sufficiently trained. The British sailors were the second home of their thousands and thousands, The British fleet was more superior and their naval craft and courage prevailed throughout the day and night because the bloody battle lasted until the dawn of August 1.
On the evening of August 1, the 120-gun commando, which had been shot down, killed almost everyone on board, including the naval brigade itself, at the age of forty-five. Only two French ships managed to escape. More than 1,750 people were killed and 1,500 injured. British casualties were 812 dead and 276 wounded (including Nelson), known as the Battle of Abu Bakr. It is worth mentioning that this battle with the Battle of the Laurel in 1805 was the last attempt by Napoleonic France to challenge sovereignty English on the seas, when news reached this setback Health to Napoleon in Cairo realized that open to Egypt tomorrow meaningless, Vamoamron his entourage had informed them now by land, sea and the way to reach the French aid to them, and they were soon going to be at the mercy of the people of the country, hostile, and the environment is unfavorable.
The First Cairo Revolution
The crisis on Napoleon and his army multiplied, and hardly a day passes without attacks by the nomads, Ottomans or Mamluks who were not appointed with their new masters (French troops). On October 22, 1798, the people of Cairo revolted against the French. Napoleon ordered the suppression of the revolutionaries. Napoleon ordered that the guns on Mount Mokattam beat Cairo and the barricades and fortifications of the revolutionaries and ordered the beating of Al-Azhar as the center of the revolution and entered the French horses Al-Azhar Sharif and killed soldiers all of his presence before them were burned books and after seeing the elders of Al-Azhar Leon even ordered a halt to repression and agreed
Plan to walk in battle
Napoleon's campaign on the Levant (March 1799)
When Napoleon heard that the Ottomans were preparing an army to restore Egypt was designed to meet the challenge, prepared thirteen thousand of his men to the Levant, and set off on February 10, 1799 and took the Arish and completed the crossing of the Sinai Desert and shows us a letter written by Napoleon on February 27 some aspects of this ordeal Thirsty water, and sometimes no water, we have eaten dogs, donkeys and camels) and found in Gaza - for their happiness - after a tough battle - fresh vegetables and fruitless orchards, a letter of congratulations on 26 February 1799 under No. 4262 of General Minu Ali His Friday sermon as a Muslim in a mosque He said to him: The best way to preserve peace in Egypt is to adopt the doctrine of Islam or at least not to oppose it and to attract the sheikhs of Islam not only in Egypt but in the rest of the Islamic world.