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Nepal- The the one and only tourist places in World
NEPAL- NEVER END PEACE AND LOVE
Actually the real meaning of Nepal is Never End Peace And Love. Nepal, the country which is situated in the Lap of Himalayas. Queen of Natural resources. The one and only country which is independent since form his beginning and will be forever. Nepal the second largest country in water, rich in culture and heritage, the fun loving place and fun loving people. There is one saying about Nepal that "surya yast Nepal Mast", means when sun goes down than party begins. When you enter in Nepal you will see only Natural Beauty that u have to say Just "WOW ! i love it." So if you have a holiday plan than do visit to Nepal, you are not going to forget it. There are so many tourist who has came for just visit but they can't leave and forget this place like Sir Edmund Hillary he has came for just mountain climbing but he lost his heart here. He was beauty lover person and due to his effort today we can go to lukla( the world most dangerous airport ranked in No. 1) by air and not only that he had also gave his effort to make Children School and many more. if you are not going to believe me than you can ask the people who has been to Nepal. you may heard about "The Gorkhali" with a slogan "Jay Mahakali, aayo Gorkhali" means "Hell god, here comes the Brave Gorkhali". There are less country who have there Past history. Nepal is rich in this. Nepal have so many brave legendry like King Janak, Princess sita, Gautam Buddha, Amshuverma, Arniko, Ram shah, King Prithvi Naryayan Shah, Bal bhadra kunwar, Bhimsen thapa, Bhakti Thapa, Amar singh Thapa- the living lion of Nepal, Poet Aadi kabi Bhanubhakta Aahcarya, Poet Motiram Bhatta, King Tribhuvan, Shankhadhar Shakwa, pasang lahamu sherpa and many more.
Mammals of Nepal
The Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal is situated along the southern slopes of the Himalayas, bordering India in the south-east and in the west, and the autonomous region of Tibet in china in north. This small country of 147,181 sq. km. extends roughly 885 km miles from east to west and 145 to 193 km from north to south. More than 75 percent of the total land mass is occupied by mountains extending from east to west across the country. Topographically, the Kingdom of Nepal can be divided into five zones.
1. The Terai
The flatland nearby the Indian border, forms the extension of the Genetic plain and varies in width form less than sixteen to more than twenty miles. In terai zone altitude varies only form sea level to a few hundred feet. About three decades ago, this whole belt of the terai consisted of vast, impenetrable tropical forest, known as "char kose jhari" (literally "a continuous stretch of the belt of four mile forest along the country"). The entire terai belt was originally a main source of timber: at present , most of verdant terai forest have disappeared and their place is taken by fertile agricultural land through there are still a few isolated pockets of terai forest which are now struggling hard for their existence against tremendous human pressure. Still vast segment of terai consists mainly of deciduous to evergreen broad leaf species and is the home of many tropical faunal and floral species. The terai region harbors spectacular wildlife such as Tiger, leopard,bear, bison, wild buffalo, and many varieties of dear and antelope. Similarly , a unique fresh water river wildlife such as the gangetic dolphin, Gharial crocodile, mugger crocodile and many species of game fish such as mahseer abound in the rivers and lakes of the terai. well over 800 species of bird life ranging from small brown birds to the most colorful pheasant, live and breed in the thickets of tropical jungle.
2. The Inner Terai
The zone consists of many basins and valleys surrounded by the lower churia hills in the south and the rugged Mahabharata range in the north . The landscape lies between 2,000 to 3,000 feet altitude. The flora and fauna is as rich as the terai zone.
3. The Midland
The mountain zone, which is a labyrinth network of the Mahabharata mountain range, covers about fifty miles in width with an altitude varying from four thousand to fourteen thousand feet on the foot-hills. Generally the tidges and spurs of this middle land mountain area present steep slopes towards the south and relatively well drained gentle slopes in the north. within midland zone, some great valleys such as Kathmandu and pokhra are flat agricultural croplands. The midland mountain region is a meeting place of sub-tropical and mountain forest: so is the wildlife distribution. The broad leaf species shorea robusta or "Sal" forest is replaced by lower coniferous forest in the lower hills, extending to a distribution of coniferous trees, maple and rhododendron forest. Amongst the mammalian wildlife typical species such as tiger, rhino, bison, wild buffalo, etc. are replaced by leopard, Himalayan black, sorrow, Himalayan Thar, red panda, etc.
4. The Great Himalayan Highlands
The extreme northern region, the great Himalayan highlands: display its massive fangs from the east to the far west of the country. within Nepalese frontiers are found thirteen of the world's highest peaks, including Sagarmatha(Mount Everest). Except for scattered human settlements in high mountain valleys, most of the glaciated valleys in this area are barren, above 14,000 feet. In the lower Himalayan foothills between 8,000 and 14,000 feet are to be found many indicator alpine types of vegetation. The Vegetation in this region varies greatly because of Micro-climate factors, exposure, rainfall and wind velocity.
5 Trans-Himalayan zone
The trans- Himalayan zone is often rain-shadowed, since the monsoons cannot traverse the Himalayas. Hence, climatically, a dry alpine barren land has developed. This zone consists of far-flung areas such as Mustang, Manang, and Dolpa, most of which are still closed to foreigners. These highlands are very close culturally and ecologically Tibetan plateau; however, the vast thick meadows, bushes and alpine scrub harbor the varied beautiful wild flowers, and in these vast stretches live magnificent mammals such as snow leopard, blue sheep, and Thar. Many high Himalayan species such as Tibetan sheep, Tibetan stag, Tibetan gazelle, Tibetan antelope, as well as wild yak are much heard of, but are yet to have their occurrences and distributions confirmed scientifically.
Nepal has rich flora and fauna created to many different zoo-geographical and climatic regions. Especially in the terai, every acre of land was formerly covered by dense forest. It was difficult for sunlight to filter through the dense top canopy of the major forest systems "Shorea" and "Terminalia" to the thick ground over. Once, the stretch of 4 miles forest(char kose jhadi) was impenetrable,not only because of a dense growth of vegetation and of the danger of encountering ferocious wildlife, but also because the door to this green world was shut tight by nature itself, guarded by mosquitoes, which acted as a vector of malaria.
Wild life in Nepal
Thought Nepal is a relatively small country, the population of wildlife it harbors is fantastically, large. With only 0.1% of the world’s total area, Nepal is home to over 4% of this planets mammal and 8% of its bird species including many which are globally endangered. To date, 181 mammal, 43 amphibian, 100 reptile, 185 fish, 844 bird, and 635 butterfly and moth species have been documented in Nepal. The spine babbler and “janakpuri” have yet to be found anywhere else in the world. Similarly, the atlas moth and a crack species recorded here are by far the largest of all their counterparts ever to be found.
Diversity in landforms breeds diversity in life, and Nepal is rich in both. In its firm commitment to preserve. His Majesty’s Government of Nepal has established within its territory 14 protected zones in corpora-ting 14% of its total surface area. These include the royal chitwan national park. The Royal Bardiya National park, The Annapurna conservation area,and the Sagarmatha shephoksundo, and lantang National park. From tropical creature like the hyena, to alpine animals like the snow leopard, beasts of all shapes and sizes have found this land suitable to their living. The one-horned Rhinoceros is one of most adamant survivors of this planet. The great one horned rhinoceros found in Nepal weighs, around 2100 kg. Looking and can reach 180cm. at the shoulders when fully grown. It has poor eyesight but its sense of smell and hearing are formidable.
Up until the 60s, the number of rhinos in Nepal was only between 80 and 100. But with the establishment of the protected areas. It has risen to more than 450. The royal Bengal Tiger often termed as the “king of the Jungle”, the tiger is one of the world’s most magnificent animals. The Royal Chitwan National park is the place which harbors most of Nepal’s 250 tigers. Other protected areas where they can be sighted are Royal Suklaphanta wildlife reserve, Royal Bardiya National park and parsa wildlife reserve. The snow leopard has its dwelling in the snow covered Himalaya. In Nepal,their habitat extends for 36640 sq. km in the high altitudes among rocks and cliffs above the treeline more than 3,500 m above the sea-level. The Gangetic dolphin, so named for their habitation in the Gangetic waters, is a recent discovery in Nepal. The female species are larger than the males and they can reach up to 260cm in length. They are non-gregarious by nature. The Gangetic dolphins abound mostly in the Koshi, Narayani, Gandaki and Karnali rivers.
The gharial crocodile is one of the most prominent reptile varieties so far found in Nepal. In Nepal, they abound mostly in the Royal Chitwan National park. Where one can even observe reproduction of gharials in breeding farm. The wild boar is distinctive for its sharp tusks, sparse coat and flute crest or mane of black bristle reaching from the nape down the black. A full grown male stands 90 cm and its weight may well exceed 230 kg.
These tusked animal abound mostly in the Royal Chitwan National Park, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Royal Bardiya National park and Parsa wild life reserve.
National Parks and wildlife Reserves in Nepal
About 225 species of mammals occur in Nepal. Nepalese mammals are found in all habitat types, from snowy mountain of Himalaya to hot steaming forest of Terai plain and show variety of adaptation eg. flying, digging, tree living, aquatic etc. Some species breeding fast have outnumbered their carrying capacity and have become pest and put great strain to agro forestry. Some act as vector of human and livestock diseases. Hence control of their population become a present necessity. Many other species, however verging extinction due to loss of habitat and become so rare that they exist no more if proper asylum in natural forest is not given. For providing better habitat and chance of multiplication Government of Nepal has set up National parks and wildlife reserve in a country wide basis to preserve mammals and other forms of life in trans-Himalayan, Himalayan, alpine, tropical bio climate belts.
The National Parks of Nepal are as follows:-
- ROYAL CHITWAN NATIONAL PARK
- KHUMBU NATIONAL PARK
- LANGTANG NATIONAL PARK
- RARA NATIONAL PARK
- ROYAL BARDIA NATIONAL PARK
- SHEY PHOKSUNDO NATIONAL PARK
- LUSAKA BARUN NATIONAL PARK and WILDLIFE RESERVE
- KHAPTAD NATIONAL PARK
- KOSHI-TAPPU WILDLIFE RESERVE
- ROYAL SUKLAPHANTA WILDLIFE RESERVE
- PARSA WILDLIFE RESERVE
- SIVAPURI CONSERVATION AREA AND WILDLIFE RESERVE
- TRIJUGA WILDLIFE RESERVE
- DHORPATAN HUNTING RESERVE
- ANNAPURNA CONSERVATION AREA
Royal Chitwan National Park
This park was first established in the year 1965 as a Royal Hunting Reserve. At present it is well known by its new name Royal Chitwan Park. This extensive Park covers an area of 932sq km. it lies in the terai belt of southern Nepal. Physio graphical it contains lowland valley of Sal dominated forest, riverine grasslands and swamplands it is one of the scientifically managed National Park of Nepal. The main purpose of its establishment was to protect the great one-horned rhino, elephant and tiger, as well as the peripheral wildlife occurring in the vast and varied ecological niches of Nepal terai.
Royal Chitwan National Park covers a broad spectrum of wildlife of terai. The principle wildlife includes rhino somber, Nilgai, Gaur, four-hourned antelope. Chital, Brown bear, elephant, Otter, Gharial, ad gangetic dolphin. Among the noteworthy avifauna represented in this park are Bengal florican and demoiselle crane. Besides these a host of wetland birds and wildfowls are found in the Narayani watershed. Among the reptilian fauna, marsh crocodile also occur in the river swamps. The Narayani Saptagandaki bank and Rapti river bank provide canoeing opportunity to the visitors in this park.
Khumbu National Park
The Everest park is approximately triangular in shape and covers an area of 1148 sq.km. It includes the highest point of exosphere at 8,848m. And deeply cut valleys situated approximately at 3,750m. The Dudh Koshi is the major snow fed river which joins Imjakhola near Phortse village. Khumbu area consists mostly of steep ragged terrain broken by deep ravines and glacial valley.
Khubu National park lies in lap of Himalayas. It occupies the in north eastern region of Nepal in Solukhumbu district as Sagarmatha zone.
Langtang National Park
This park is gazette in 1976. The second big Himalayan Park covers an area of 1710 sq.km. and lies on the northern frontier of the country. Its principle feature include densely forested Himalayan mountains, alpine pastures, snowy crags, glacier and rivers. The vegetation of the park is dominated by juniper-rhododendron scrub, blue pine, and cushion plants. This park was established for its intrinsic scenic value as well as for the protection of trans- Himalayan biota. The major scenic places of this area include holy Gosaikunda lake, massive rolling hills of Langtang.
The major wildlife of this park include panda, musk deer, barking deer, Himalayan the serrow, ghoral, leopard, snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, yellow throat ed Himalayan marten, Pika, wild dog, among others,
Rara National Park
Lake Rara National park occupies an area of 106 sq.km. It is one of the highland national parks of the country situated at the height of 10,000 ft. Lake Rara National Park contains a large alpine lake- lake Rara, which is fed by the Karnali river system. Topographically, it is a rich area consisting of alpine environment. The main attraction of the park is gem-like Mugu village, blue crystal clear water of Rara, The scenic cascade of Karnali River and Nisa khola. This park is forestically rich: spur of chuchamare, Gumgad valley is dominated by pine, fir and broad forest. Lake Rara is one of the waterfowl flyway centers in Asia, and along with the karnali watershed, is the important resting place for resident and migdrartory wetland birds. The main purpose of the establishment of the park was to provide protection to fast diminishing alpine wildlife such as musk deer, red panda, serow, goral, Himalayan thar and black bear.
Some distinctive animal life of this park include vole, flying squirrel, musk deer, serow, ghoral, Himalayan weasel, Yellow throat Himalayan marten, red panda, wild dog, black bear, jackal, Indian fox, common langur, Rhesus monkey
The important avifuna represented in this park are, chakhur partridge, danphey (lophophorus) Kaliz pheasant, blood pheasant, coot, crested pochard, Mallard, Bar beaded goose.
Royal Bardia National Park
This park covers an area of 968 sq.km. This reserve was gazette in 1976 and is situated in the terai zone on the bank of Karnali river in western Nepal. A high density of tigers, side by side of all mammals typical of the terai belt is represented in this area. This National Park has been established for the protection of the endangered black buck population.