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Oklahoma History: Pioneer Life in Early Oklahoma
Forward: A few thoughts about Pioneer Life in Oklahoma
Pioneer life in Oklahoma wasn't easy, but for those brave souls who ventured out into the wild lands of untamed Oklahoma it was their dream. They saw this new state as a ray of light, a chance to own a piece of the American Dream; a home and land of their own.
As you read this, try to imagine for a moment what life was like in the late 1800's. Imagine their hardships. Imagine the way they lived their lives simply, and understand their belief that hard work and determination can build great cities.
This is our past, and we should all take great pride in it. If it wasn't for those brave men, women, and children that ventured into the wild unknown then Oklahoma wouldn't be as it is today. They fought the ravages of nature in order to establish a home for themselves. They had a dream, a vision of what life should be. Without their desires, achievements, drive and determination, the state of Oklahoma would be a much different place.
"I enjoy Terry Griffith books about Oklahoma City. His books are primarily photographs but sometimes a picture can tell a story more than words. I wish there were more books by him on the rest of Oklahoma."
Oklahoma Pioneers is a biographical narrative about Mallie Rue Karr (1882-1971) and Horace Greeley Teeman Hall (1877-1965) who were married in Indian Territory (the Cherokee Nation) in 1900 and migrated there in a covered wagon in the spring of 1907, a few months before Oklahoma became the forty-seventh state in the Union.
Western expansion reached Oklahoma in the late 1800’s in a way that was unprecedented in the history of the United States. In 1889, a choice portion of Indian Territory in Oklahoma was opened to white settlement, and the early settlers in Oklahoma engaged in various “land runs” throughout the territory. At this point in history, Oklahoma was still mostly void of all things considered civilized. The only visible elements of civilization was a railroad line that crossed the territory, and water towers and other requirements for steam rail operation were located at intervals along the tracks that connected Arkansas and Texas. Beyond that, early pioneers to Oklahoma Territory had to make do with what they could bring or build on their own.
The first settlers arrived in their covered wagons with very few necessities and no luxuries of life. They usually brought enough grain with them to plant crops. Wild turkeys, geese, deer, elk and prairie chickens were plentiful so meat was provided in abundance.
Oklahoma Pioneer Homes
The settlers’ first homes were very crude one-room houses built out of raw timber. Occasionally, if one could afford the time, a small shed was built to house their tools. Floors were made of logs where only the top portion was skimmed flat. The floors were loosely joined together and cracks in between the logs ran the length of the house. These early Oklahoma pioneers had a rough time keeping their houses warm in the winter, even though they kept a small fireplace burning throughout the winter months. In addition to providing heat, these fireplaces provided a means of cooking. The settlers later built two story log houses with a hall in the center, which contained the stairway leading upstairs to the bedrooms.
The houses were rarely plastered, but sometimes they would be weather boarded inside. During the summer months, flies and fleas invaded these homes like an army. In addition to being made of crudely cut logs and unsealed against the elements, most homes had no screens at the door. Windows were square places left in the logs and covered over with greased paper. In many cases early settlers in Oklahoma simply chose not to even have windows.
The yards were enclosed with a rail fence. In the front yard, a “stile block” was set up to assist the modest women of the family in mounting their horses or helped into the big wagon.
Their furniture consisted of the four-poster beds, curtained off, with trundle beds underneath on which the children slept, a chest of drawers, a homemade table, chairs, and in the more aristocratic families, a sofa.
Daily Life: Feeding a Family of Fourteen
Families were large by today’s standards. It was typical to find families that had as many as 10 to 15 children. A family of eight was considered a moderate sized family. For a moment, imagine fitting a family of that size in the small homes they were able to build. Imagine having to feed a family that large in modern times. It was difficult, but families had to be large in order to maintain the ranches and farms they built.
Staple food for the settlers was the barn and
salt pork smoked by hickory log fire, dried beef, wild turkey, wild geese and
deer. Cooking was done in iron kettles,
which were set on tri-cornered iron holders. This was placed in the hottest place in the
fire in the fireplace. Skillets, pots
and tin pans were also used and every family had a huge brass kettle in which
they made their soap, apple butter, maple syrup, and rendered out the lard.
Fires were made by striking a piece of steel against a flint rock. Light was furnished by tallow candles that the housewife made. There were no sewing machines and all garments had to be made by hand..
Farming Very Crude
The farming of the early settlers seems very crude to us today with all the modern farm machinery. When the early settlers came to Oklahoma, most came by horse and wagon, and they brought a few farm implements with them. The land was mostly grass and clay, which had to be plowed before a crop could be raised. Before the seed could be sewn, the land had to be "sodded out," which consisted of plowing the land a few inches deep. Once the land was ready, early settlers grew cane, or forage sorghum, which was a popular crop to plant in the newly plowed sod.
Later, cotton became the most popular crop grown because it was easy to grow and typically brought a good profit. Growing cotton required a lot of labor, so the farmer utilized the large number of family members to help. The new land was highly productive, and when rainfall was adequate, good crops could be harvested.
Life on the Frontier
The amusements were simple but were keenly enjoyed. There were occasional quilting bees when the
women of the neighborhood would gather and help the housewife with her quilts. Weddings were occasions of feasting and
merrymaking. Distances were so long that frequently the guests would remain
Schools in the area were one room log buildings with puncheon floors. Hard long benches served as desks with no backs to them. Sometimes the school was perched upon pegs or stilts two feet or more from the ground. The studies usually consisted of three R’s, Reading, Writing and Arithmetic.
Boys and girls usually continued to attend school until they were married. The teacher would give out stray bits of information about physiology, astronomy, geography, history from his own scanty knowledge of the subjects. More than 70 to 80 pupils were enrolled and crowded into the small log school.
Classes were called to the front of the room to recite the lesson. Members of the teaching profession usually received about $25 per month. The teachers were nearly always men and boarded around from house to house.
The school house served as a meeting house on Sunday for the religious groups. Itinerant preachers brought the word of God to the God fearing settlers. The women sat on one side of the house and the men on the other. After the services the preacher would be invited to accompany some member home. The entire congregation would spend the rest of the day listening to the preacher talk and getting the gossip of the neighborhood.
Remembering those who have Gone Before
The years following the Oklahoma Land Run in 1889 were rough for the early settlers. There are a great many stories of hardships, trials, and tribulations, but at the same time, there's an equal number of stories about successes and great times of joy.
As we live our lives today, sometimes it's all too easy to forget those who have gone before us. These are the people who paved the way across every state in the nation. These are the people who laid the first bricks in our downtowns, and who first brought civilization to uncivilized places.
Take a moment to imagine what life was like for these early pioneers. As you do, ask yourself, could you do it? Could you help found a state? A nation?
In the end, we are all founders of a great state. We are all founders of this great country. We move life forward, making progress for all of humanity as we go. As we do this, like our forefathers before us, we are creating a brighter future for those who follow.
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