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See the Cliff Dwellings in the Tonto Basin National Forest Ruins; Arizona Salado Indian People

Updated on March 10, 2017
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Arizona has its own beauty. With local cacti, a wonderful geography of desert, high desert, pine forest and mountains, it's truly splendid.

Within Tonto National Forest

Heading southwest on Arizona State Route 87 from Payson, AZ, one comes to a junction with Arizona State Route 188. Taking the SR188 turnoff and heading south, a tourist would enter what is known as the Tonto Basin. A basin formed from the connection of the Salt River and the Tonto Creek, Tonto Basin is home to beautiful wildlife, small communities,Lake Roosevelt, and ancient ruins. If you are planning a vacation, this is one of the Arizona places you won't want to miss.

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Entering the Tonto Basin

Tonto Basin Ahead - photo by me:)
Tonto Basin Ahead - photo by me:) | Source

Lower Cliff Dwelling

Marvelous Building as the hike on the path begins. It is nearly half a mile, but a great hike with terrific views.
Marvelous Building as the hike on the path begins. It is nearly half a mile, but a great hike with terrific views. | Source

The Path Up

At the top of the hill to the right of the clouds is a second cliff dwelling. It must be hiked to, but appointments can be made to go up with a ranger.
At the top of the hill to the right of the clouds is a second cliff dwelling. It must be hiked to, but appointments can be made to go up with a ranger. | Source
Notice wood structure at the top of the doorway.
Notice wood structure at the top of the doorway. | Source
Some supports have been installed to prevent walls from tipping.
Some supports have been installed to prevent walls from tipping. | Source
Another ruin room
Another ruin room | Source
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Black stains on the cave wall is evidence of cooking fires.
Black stains on the cave wall is evidence of cooking fires. | Source
What you see first at the end of the path hike.
What you see first at the end of the path hike. | Source
The first thing that strikes you is how well these primitive people built structures. The walls are very straight.
The first thing that strikes you is how well these primitive people built structures. The walls are very straight. | Source
Some things must be seen but not touched. The care of cliff dwellings is extensive.
Some things must be seen but not touched. The care of cliff dwellings is extensive. | Source

As you descend from what were mountains of the Mogollon Rim, the Tonto Basin lies ahead with Lake Roosevelt (named after Teddy) taking up much of its bottom. Shaped like a soup tureen, the basin is lush with cholla and saguaro cactus bulging at the sides. The last two years have been good to the cactus and wildlife with plentiful rains. The lake has regained the water it had lost over several years of drought. It is easy to imagine wandering people long before us viewing this area from these heights as a place of promise. Climbing in elevation both east and west are the steep sides of the basin mountains. Cliff dwelling photos follow-

The highway runs along the west side of the basin all the way to Globe, Arizona. From the sides of the lake, and on up, are a variety of species of plants and animals. Near the lake is a very fertile land with the southern end of the basin speckled with ranches and some farming. Because the lake is nestled between lower ranging mountains, the area seems to get a little more rainfall (and for sure, runoff) than the Phoenix valley to the south and west.

Great for Farming and Protection

With this land fertility and moisture, a variety of plants grew making this place home to prehistoric peoples. These ancients grew corn; beans; pumpkins; cotton; and amaranth, a type of grain. In addition, they augmented their diets with the buds, leaves, and roots of a rich variety of native plants, including prickly pear and saguaro cactus, and mesquite, black walnut, sycamore, and hackberry trees.

In this mix of high desert plants including agave and yucca lived a people called the Salado. Salado in Spanish means salt, and what we refer to as the Salt River was known long before as Rio Salado. Native peoples migrated here from nearby valleys as stressors to their survival dictated they move. Tonto Basin with its native food, good game and lots of water was a welcome site. For an excellent piece on the Salado people, use the link at the bottom of the page.

These people farmed along the Salt River which ran through what is now the center of Lake Roosevelt. In 1906-1911, a dam was built resulting in the formation of Lake Roosevelt, and the flooding of ancient land with its system of irrigation canals.

People had lived in this location since 100 AD. With swings in climate change, people came and went. Each group to stay for a good period of time left unique signs of their presence. Tools fashioned from animal bone indicate that the Salado hunted local deer, rabbit, quail and other small game for food.

Archaeologists have found red-on-buff pottery dating to 750 AD in the Tonto Basin area. Red-on-buff pottery is pottery made by layered coils and finished with a paddle and painted with red designs. A later form of pottery the Salado people made called polychrome pottery is when 3 or more mineral colors are used to decorate a handmade ceramic. For an example of prehistoric pottery, weavings, and artistic renderings, see the link at the bottom of the page.

As the best river valley land was taken, more and more people migrated to higher elevations along the Tonto Basin. Some of the caves in cliffs at the upper elevations were settled. The most fascinating efforts by these people to maintain community and defense are the cliff dwellings of the Tonto Basin. These cliff dwellings are not as famous as those of Mesa Verde National Park, the site of the Hisatsinom ruins, or Montezuma Castle, but the Tonto Basin Cliff Dwellings in their silent splendor,should be a refreshing surprise to tourists.

A Marvel of Ancient Construction

Two very large cliff dwellings built into caves sit as tributes to these resourceful people. These Arizona cliff dwellings with their beautiful multi-room living areas 2 stories tall and made of regional rock cemented together just about take your breath away. The straight tall walls are amazing. What diligence and effort must have gone into creating such lovely structures. Wood beams supported roofs and floors. Because of the dry clean atmosphere in those caves, the headers for doors and windows made of native wood still exist!

As you walk up the 0.46 mile paved path to the lower cliff dwelling, you can see a white chalky substance clinging to layers of rock. It looks to be a calcium compound of some sort deposited as moisture seeped from the top of the mountain. Could this be a part of the mud stucco used to coat the walls? It seems possible, but if you ask one of the park rangers at this site, I am sure she/he can give you an idea. I will let the photos of the structures speak for themselves.

Not long after you pull into the asphalt drive leading to the dwellings there is a picnic area with tables and ramadas. It is a wonderful place to spend a few minutes relaxing amidst the quiet. If you are the kind of person who likes to pack a chest with pop and sandwiches, it's a great place to get refreshed before touring the cliff dwellings. There are plenty of camping areas farther east across the highway at Roosevelt Lake, also. These should provide ample accommodation for Arizona vacations.

If you are a traveler who likes to site hop and head for a restaurant and motel, then Globe, Arizona is the place you will want to travel to. It's a tough old western Arizona mining town with a rich history. My next verbal vacation article will leave Tonto Basin and head the 44 miles southeast to Globe. That rich history I told you about is worth exploring. Adios.

Arizona Highlights

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Rogers Canyon Near Superior, AZ

View of the Basin from Dwelling

The view of  Roosevelt Lake (named after Teddy) from the cliff dwellings. The dam for this splendid lake was completed in 1915. Some of the finest fishing activity is at this lake.
The view of Roosevelt Lake (named after Teddy) from the cliff dwellings. The dam for this splendid lake was completed in 1915. Some of the finest fishing activity is at this lake. | Source

© 2010 John R Wilsdon

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    • radhikasree profile image

      Radhika Sreekanth 4 years ago from Mumbai,India

      Your personal photos have added beauty to your words. You gave me an awesome virtual tour through your state Arizona. Would love to visit someday.

      Up and awesome.

      Sharing with my followers here.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 5 years ago from Houston, Texas

      Really enjoyed reading this hub regarding the cliff dwellings in the Tonto Basin. Arizona is such a gorgeous state filled with natural as well as historic man made structures / ruins. Thanks for this look through your words and camera lens. Voted up, interesting and useful.

    • john000 profile image
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      John R Wilsdon 6 years ago from Superior, Arizona

      Hi crystolite

      Thanks for the comment. Hope you can see it someday!

    • crystolite profile image

      Emma 6 years ago from Houston TX

      Nice documentary and thanks for sharing.

    • john000 profile image
      Author

      John R Wilsdon 6 years ago from Superior, Arizona

      Jed Fisher

      It is great to know this helped someone. Thanks for the comment and enjoy your trip. The weather is great!

    • Jed Fisher profile image

      Jed Fisher 6 years ago from Oklahoma

      This hub is awesome, it really gives me a feel of what visiting Tonto National Forest will be like when I visit next month. Thank you very much for sharing this article!

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