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The Austrian Sigmund Freud Founder Of Psychoanalysis

Updated on October 18, 2009

The Austrian Sigmund Freud Founder Of Psychoanalysis

The Austrian Sigmund Freud Founder Of Psychoanalysis


Austrian psychoanalyst

The Austrian Sigmund Freud Founder of Psychoanalysis, the study of psychological rather than physiological causes of mental disorders and the therapy for their relief.

Born to a middle-class Jewish wool merchant, Freud was raised and educated in Vienna. He initially studied medicine and neurology, but pursued an interest in the life of the psyche through clinical observation and self-analysis. From this he developed his view of the unconscious mind as the seat of repressed, often sexual, feelings. He went on to propose such influential notions as the revelatory power of dreams as expressions of hidden wishes, the link between manifested illness and the unconscious, and his theory of infantile sexuality, including the Oedipus complex (a neurosis induced by a child’s sexual desire for a parent).

Contemporaries poured scorn on Austrian Sigmund Freud Founder Of Psychoanalysis theories. Later, feminists derided his concept of “penis envy.” He also incurred Nazi censure and was forced to flee to London, where he died in 1939. However, his work transformed our understanding of human behaviour and continues to exert a wide-ranging influence.

MAY 6, 1856-Born in Freiberg, Moravia, the eldest son of Jakob Freud, a Jewish wool merchant, and his second wife, Amalie Nathansohn.

1859-Family settles in Vienna.

1873–82-Enters the University of Vienna to study medicine. Works with Ernst von Brucke and becomes interested in neurological research.

1881–85-Graduates as a doctor of medicine and joins staff of Vienna GeneralHospital, working on psychiatry and nervous diseases.

1885-Becomes lecturer in neuropathology at the University of Vienna. Studies “hysterics” under neurologist Jean Charcot in Paris, forming interest in psychopathology.

1886-Marries Martha Bernays after a four-year engagement, much of which is spent apart. Sets up private practice in Vienna for nervous diseases.

1895-Cowrites “Studies of Hysteria,” with physician Josef Breuer, outlining treatment of hysteria through free association to reveal traumas from the unconscious.

1896-Coins term “psychoanalysis” to describe his work discovering psychological explanations for mental disorders and providing therapy for their relief.

1897–1900-Analyses own dreams for three years, leading to publication of “The Interpretation of Dreams” in 1900, defining dreams as imaginary wish fulfilments.

1902-Becomes a professor of neuropathology at University of Vienna. Despite general hostility to his ideas, starts seminars with Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and others.

1905-Publishes “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality,” defining the influence of sexuality on human behaviour from infancy onward, including the Oedipus complex.

1908–10-Seminar group becomes Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and then the International Psychoanalytical Association. Gives lecture series in Massachusetts.

1910–20-Applies theories to religion, art, mythology, and anthropology in such books as “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” (1920), and the “Ego and the Id” (1923).

1933-Publishes “Why War?,” written in collaboration with Albert Einstein.

JUNE 4, 1938-Takes family to London following Nazi occupation of Austria and censorship of psychoanalysis.

SEPTEMBER 23, 1939-Dies in London from cancer of the jaw.

My name is Robee Kann, for four years I was a tour guide throughout Europe. I loved my job and I would love to hear from you. You are most welcome to message me to say hello or request a hub about a European subject. Please look at my other hubs and leave a comment for me.

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    • Robee Kann profile image

      Robee Kann 7 years ago

      Cheers Justsilvie, glad to hear you are enjoying the read

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      Justsilvie 7 years ago

      Really am enjoying reading your articles about Austria!

    • Robee Kann profile image

      Robee Kann 7 years ago

      Thanks Tina V

    • TINA V profile image

      TINA V 7 years ago

      I made a link to this hub using the word "dreams" in my article entitled,"Dream:What does it Possibly Denotes". This is an informative hub about Sigmund Freud,PhD.

      Have a great week!