ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Treasures from Tajik museum

Updated on February 22, 2018

Treasures from Tajik Museum of Ethnography.

A former republic of the Soviet Union and now an independent country located in Central Asia, Tajikistan is currently leaning towards growth and stability. A mountain country with deep historical roots, Tajikistan is assimilating into the general context of world civilization with its specific characteristics of culture, traditions and way of life. For the sake of future generations, it is necessary to preserve artistic trends of Tajikistan in order to connect past history with the future. Researching and publishing works on the Tajik art and culture pays the appropriate tribute to the phenomenon of the Tajik people.

The earliest cultural artifacts, the so-called artifacts of the Gissar Neolithic, culture on the territory of Tajikistan date back to the Paleolithic, or Old Stone, Age. Settlements from the Bronze Age have been discovered in the Zeravshan Valley, near the Sarazm settlement.

The ancient period between the middle of the first millennium to the middle of the second millennium was the time of initial unification of the tribes living on the territory of modern Tajikistan. This historical period attracted quite a significant interest from archeologists.

Written sources attest to the middle part of the first millennium. Central Asia was then part of the Achaemenid Empire, defeated by Alexander the Great in the early 330 BCE. The southern territories of the country were taken over by the Greco-Bactrian government, the capital of which was located in the northern Afghanistan. The Temple of Oxus at the Takhti-Sangin settlement is a vivid example of symbiosis between the Hellenistic and local culture of the given historical period in the southern part of Tajikistan. The Uedji tribe or the Takhars had a devastating effect on the Greek-Bactrian culture – their rule over the land is characterized mostly by burial mounds of the 1st century BC – 1-2 centuries AD. Taking over large territories of the Ancient East, the Kushan tribe united and synthesized Ancient Indian and Central Asian cultures within confines of the Kushan Empire.

The 5--8 centuries welcomed development and formation of a new socio-economic society and regime, the time of class and feudal systems’ configuration. At this time, the southern regions of Tajikistan, under the rule of the Sassanid Empire, had experienced the Ephtalid invasion. Undoubtedly, the political turmoil found its place in the art and culture of the country. In the early medieval era, southern parts of Tajikistan belonged to the northern Tokharistan, the eastern part of Zeravshan was part of the Sogd territories, and northern Tajikistan was split between Ustrushana, Fergana and Ilak.

Feodal castles -- artifacts of that era – have been found in Western Fergana, suburbs of Shakhristan, Zeravshan valley and in the south of the country.

Sogd played a leading role in the process of unification of the early medieval culture of Central Asia; other examples are seen in the architectural finds, sculpture and painting of Ustrushana and northern Tokharistan. Sogdian language was the primary mode of communication in Central Asia.

In the last decades of the 8 – beginning of the 9 century, a new religion was gaining popularity. Islam brought not only new holy books, but also a new written language, a new calendar, and a new educational system. Sogdian, Bactrian, and other languages of Central Asia were replaced by Tajik and Dari languages. A new ethnicity, Tajiks, was formed. Ancient Tajikistan entered Arabic Halifat, forcing local culture into the height of its power; Ferdowsi and Avicenna are still highly revered as treasures of world literature.

Samanids were replaced by Karakhanids; progressive development of the peoples of Central Asia was interrupted by the Genghis Khan’s invasion in the 1220s.

In the 14-15 centuries, art and culture again experienced a period of growth, characterized by a well-honed art of ornamentation, elements of décor in architecture and jewelry. The artifacts of Huttal show liaisons with Ghaznavid art, Zarevshan’s methods of wood carving follow Sogdian traditions, while the artistic metalwork of northern Tajikistan is influenced by the masters of the Near East.

From 1500 until 1920, most of the contemporary Tajikistan territories were part of the Bukharian khanate, and later in 1785, of the Bukhar Emirate. In 1868, the emirate was invaded by Russia; in 1924, the Bukharan People’s Soviet Republic became a part of the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union disintegrated in 1992, Tajikistan regained autonomy as an independent country in Central Asia. At each historical phase, the ideology and politics of the ruling parties were reflected in Tajikistan’s art and culture. Now the independent country of Tajikistan faces the future, resting upon ancient roots, culture and traditions of the Tajik people.

The Ethnography Museum of the A. Donish’s Institute of History (a branch of the Tajikistan’s Academy of Sciences) holds a unique collection of jewelry of Central Asia from the 19--20 centuries. Many significant researchers worked on this collection, among them ethnographers A.K. Pisarchik, B.Kh. Karmysheva, N.N. Ershov, M. Khamidzhanova, T. Mezurnova, Z. Shirokova, and other members of the museum staff and the Ethnography Institute.

For instance, the museum’s collection of earrings that in 1990 contained over three hundred items was built mostly through expeditions to different areas at different times, starting from 1948 up until 1990 (which marks the beginning of the civil war in Tajikistan).

One of the most ancient crafts, the art of jewelry making, looks back at a thousand years of development. The skill of jewelry making was passed from generation to generation, enriching the resulting works of art with the profound artistic experience of the people.

Having undergone a number of symbolic and semantic transformations, items of jewelry retained their protective function up until the 20 century. Apotropaic artifacts adorned people’s heads, ears, arms, chests, and clothes. Thus, we classify jewelry by head, neck, arm and clothing adornments.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)