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Wonders of the World - Hidden City of Petra

Updated on June 9, 2011
SamboRambo profile image

Sam was a Vietnam soldier, a writer of books and articles, an illustrator and a graphic artist. He also plays the piano and writes poetry.

"The Treasury" - Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Bernard Gagnon
"The Treasury" - Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Bernard Gagnon
A view of the Treasury from the "Siq." [Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Bernard Gagnon]
A view of the Treasury from the "Siq." [Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Bernard Gagnon]
"The Urn Tomb," Photo and Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Jean-Brice Demoulin
"The Urn Tomb," Photo and Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Jean-Brice Demoulin
"The Great Temple," still being excavated. (Click to Enlarge) Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Bernard Gagnon]
"The Great Temple," still being excavated. (Click to Enlarge) Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Bernard Gagnon]

What can you attribute to barbaric nomads? How about the 140-foot monolithic facade carved out of a solid rock cliff shown here? This structure is called “Al Khazneh,” or the “Treasury,” and is found at the gateway of the hidden city of Petra, in Jordan, near the town of Wadi Musa. This structure is only one of many amazing architectural engineering feats found at Petra.

The Nabataeans were a nomadic tribe from Arabia that settled in the western area of Jordan in the seventh century BC. They, being used to sun and sand, found a place nestled among steep canyon walls where water flowed and shadows played. By the third century BC, the Nabataeans had monopolized two important commodities and before long, these wanderers became a wealthy kingdom. Petra became the Nabataean capitol - a city of rock-hewn monuments, palaces, temples, fountains, amphitheaters, water cisterns and clay water pipes.

Petra’s Monopolies:
Petra and the surrounding area occupied by the Nabataeans happened to be at the hub of the trade routes that converged from China, India, Arabia, Egypt, Assyria, Greece and Italy. Being in a dry area, the Nabataeans made large cisterns where they stored water. The cisterns were supplied via clay waterways. These attracted caravans carrying spices and incense, as their camels needed large amounts of water. It was the practice of those controlling the water resources to charge a tax, and the Nabataeans were no different.

Their other commodity was - what a surprise - oil! In the southern tip of the Dead Sea, large iceberg-type masses of a jellied crude oil emerged from its depths and floated on the surface. This was called bitumen. There were two basic markets for this substance: the ship-building industry and the Egyptian mummy market. Bitumen was used as a caulking compound for ships, and as a mummifying agent.

In addition to this, in the second century BC, after the Minaean kingdom fell, the Batanaeans took control of their incense trails, thus getting their fingers well into the incense trade world, a very popular commodity then.

Nabataean Power:
These products and opportunities helped the Nabataeans to grow in riches and power, even to the point of being able to defend their oil resources on the Dead Sea. The Nabataeans repulsed such powers as an army sent by Antigonus headed by Hieronymus, and by Athenaeus, Demetrius, and the Greek Seleucid king Antiochus XII. The power and influence of the Nabataean kingdom reached most parts of Jordan, and even for a time to Damascus. By the end of the second century, Petra was full of foreign dignitaries, including a Roman ambassador. Harvard professor G. W. Bowersock, author of the book Roman Arabia, dubbed their realm "one of the greatest kingdoms of the ancient Middle East." Whether due to the sovereign influences around them, or to appeal to a wide variety of travelers, the figures found on the facade of the Treasury bore personalities, gods and godesses from the Greek, Roman and local cultures.

Typically, the Nabataeans were a peace-loving people. Because of their riches, they often offered silver or valuable gifts to stave off would-be conquerors. Later on, the Pharaoh Cleopatra exploited this trait to the point of weakening the Nabataean economy.

Tour of the City
The hidden city of Petra is accessed through a mile-long crack in the rock that is wider at the base. Before emerging from this passage, which is called a “Siq,” a view of the impressive Treasury comes into view. It is reported to be breathtaking, filling the whole area beyond the towering opening of the Siq. As one approaches this edifice, he/she is dwarfed by the facade, as shown in the first two photographs of this article.

At least one source reports that - because of the inscriptions found - the tombs were made by Nabataean sculptors and not imported slaves or laborers (“Petra - Capital City of Nabataea,”

Further investigation of the City of Petra is limited, still, to the fizzure, which widens out but doesn’t end until you pass other structures such as “the street of facades,” various tombs, and the theatre. Then the valley opens up to show other impressive structures such as the Great Temple of Petra, and burial caves. The second-most impressive structure in Petra, after the Treasury, is the monastery, called “El-Deir,” situated higher up on a hill within the valley. It is larger than the treasury, but it has much less decoration, and was never finished.

"The Monastary" - Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Berthold Werner
"The Monastary" - Photo & Permission via Wikipedia Commons by Berthold Werner

The Treasury

The Treasury is the most impressive of the structures in Petra. Not just due to its size, but because of the detail, and the impressive untold message that massive amounts of pure rock had to be meticulously broken up, moved out and then carved away in exquisite detail from a vertical surface.

It was initially thought that scaffolding was used to carve this facade, the vertical columns of holes on each side contributing to that theory. But there was little timber-bearing trees in the vicinity. Also, other similarly-carved structures in Petra did not have the holes that this structure had, so the idea of scaffolding was ruled out. Instead, it was determined that a ledge was created in the face of the cliff that lead up to the top of the planned structure. The workers then widened that ledge, cutting into the cliff, thus creating a platform on which to work. They then carved from the top-down, creating the forms and sculptures as they removed the rock. Much of the rock they removed was in large blocks, and probably used them to create some of the other buildings found further into the canyon.

The two pillars closest to the entryway were free-standing. When Petra was discovered in 1812, one pillar had collapsed, but the gable above was unmoved. The facade was renovated for tourism, making the pillar on our left somewhat inauthentic.

When you ascend the steps and stop in the porch area of the Treasury, you will notice an opening on each side of the porch. Each of these leads to an anteroom. Going further forward, you will enter a large room, with a smaller room in the back, and slot-type rooms on either side of the main chamber.

It is unclear what this edifice was used for, as all loose or perishable items have been stripped or robbed by looters. There are writings engraved on some of the walls in the city, but they are mainly made by travelers or passers-by, and mean nothing as pertaining to this city. The popular theory is that it was a treasury, thus the name. Others consider it a temple or a mausoleum for the dead that were supposedly buried in or under it. The dirt in front of the porch covers more structure found further beneath the ground level. If you were to remove the dirt in front of this facade, you would find a few tombs across the front. Whether there was a walkway between the tombs leading up to the porch, or if the tombs were meant to be permanently buried, no one is sure. No bodies were found in the tombs.

Some believe this structure was a library, to show the outside world that these people were now literate, and important. As resourceful as the Nabataeans were, it would not be surprising to learn that they joined in with the trend of other great cities such as Alexandria, and cashed in on the book market. The ante-rooms on each side of the entrance, probably made to hold scrolls and keep them out of the weather, is consistent with that idea. Other significant libraries were built in a similar way.

Whatever its usage, most believe the Treasury was constructed and strategically placed beyond the narrow opening of the Siq mainly to dazzle travelers.

The Treasury facade was used in the final scenes of the movie, “Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.”

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aramco World, March-April 1981.
Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1994
Petra and the lost kingdom of the Nabataeans, by Jane Taylor
The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol XXII, pg. 40
The religion of the Nabataeans: a conspectus, by John F. Healey
G. W. Bowersock, Roman Arabia


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    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      SamboRambo. Yes, Petra is magnificent piece on the earth.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Yes. And thank you for your patients.

    • SamboRambo profile imageAUTHOR

      Samuel E. Richardson 

      6 years ago from Salt Lake City, Utah

      You're wondering if I don't mind that you're off topic. It doesn't bother me much, but am beginning to wonder if I should say something. I haven't read all your comments, so I don't know the jist of your topic. If you tell me about in a few words, or let me know your religious preferences, maybe I can direct you to forums that address that topic.

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      Vlad, I'm not talking about mistranslated single words, but the whole fragments like the ending of the Book of Job which provide us with historical references to Job and his Edomite nation.

      The Septuagint reads:

      "17 And Job died, an old man and full of days: and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord raises up.

      This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab;  and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. 

      And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. 

      And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. 

      And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans".

      This ending to the Book of Job has also been retain in the ancient Coptic Bible, however, from the present translations is also gone.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      SAG. Septuagint is translation OT from Hebrew to Greek language. Vulgate is translation to Latin. It is good to learn original languages Hebrew and Greek, one can read original writings. It is good to use Amplified Bible and Young: Literal Translation of the Bible.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sag. It is not original which differs. Those are translations. Translators do best they know and many translated to improve. I just published: EMPTY CROSS - EMPTY TOMB. This is the truth which will set us free.

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      Vlad, if the Scripture has not been altered then why Tanakh, Septuagint LXX, KJV and NIV differ in so many places? Why do we have so many missing words in the codes of Tanakh?

      BTW Vlad, I have asked you a couple of question, if you can answer them it will help me to write on what we don't agree.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sagittarius. I hope author of this article don't mind we are off of subject. I am glad we are close in understanding. One seeking for the truth shall find. It will make him free even from sin of unbelief. Important is being objective and come without preconceive ideas. Being born again means having new spirit to understand and will shorten long trip. It is wisdom man will receive. The Scripture was not altered! There are many point for unbelievers to remove some scripture but they could not. God protected His Word and it is reason why He choose man or nation for this purpose.

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      Vladimir, I’m not astrologist, NWO member, religious or whatever you have called me in the past.

      I’m just the Bible reader, searching for the TRUTH.

      I consider the Bible as inspired book, a letter from God, and reading it I’m trying to understand what I’m reading.

      As every serious Bible reader, I realize that the Bible has been corrupted; however, I also believe that there is still enough truth in the Bible to help us to find the TRUTH.

      Vladimir, you should notice by now that most of the texts I’m posting here are from your Bible; usually KJV or NIV, but sometimes I use Septuagint LXX, which was the Bible (OT) Christ, was using.

      I you prefer Tanakh, it is fine with me. I consider Tanaka as the oldest original Bible, which has been sealed with the Bible codes; however, I know that its text has been corrupted as well.

      Vladimir, let me take you for a journey as you have never been before. Let’s go back to the times of Noah, then trough the Bronze an Iron Ages, to explore the hidden from the world civilization, the fascinating civilization of EDOM.

      Because Petra, the city Sam’s hub is about, was part of ancient Edom, I think Sam want mind if we do it on his hub.

      So Vlad, let’s go back to the times of Noah.

      Tanakh, Book of Bereshit (Genesis) reads:

      “Chapter 10 ›

      1 And G-d blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: 'Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth…

      5 And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man's brother, will I require the life of man.

      6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of G-d made He man.”

      Vlad, from this verses I understand that God forbade to kill any human being, and made it very clear that “Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of G-d made He man.”

      Do you think it applies to the children of Jacob / Israel as well?

      Let’s have a look at another verse from this chapter; Chapter 10 verses 24 – 27 reads:

      “24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him.

      25 And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.

      26 And he said: Blessed be HaShem, the G-d of Shem; and let Canaan be their servant.

      27 G-d enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be their servant.”

      Notice Val, that in the blessing Noah said:

      “27 G-d enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem;”

      This is important verse regarding marriages of Esau / Edom.

      Now let’s skip some chapters and stop at Genesis chapter 12 God says to Abraham:

      “1 Now HaShem said unto Abram: 'Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto the land that I will show thee.

      2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing.

      3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.' “

      Notice Vlad, this is what God say to Abraham, father of many nations; just one of them happened to be Israelites.

      In Genesis Chapter 15, God continues:

      1 …'Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.'

      5 … 'Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them'; and He said unto him: 'So shall thy seed be.'

      18 'Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates;

      Vlad, do you remember the times when Israel possessed the land from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates? Because I don’t.

      However, there is something interesting in Genesis 36 about the descendents of Abraham who did rule the ancient world from the river of Egypt to the river of Euphrates;

      Genesis 36 reads:

      “1 Now these are the generations of Esau--the same is Edom…

      31 And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel…

      37 And Samlah died, and Shaul of Rehoboth by the River reigned in his stead.”

      Rehoboth by the river indicate that the river is Euphrates; so the blessing of Abraham has been fulfilled while the Israelites were in the slavery in Egypt.

      From history we know that Edomites, Minaeans and Ishmaelites formed the union known as Hyksos, and we know that Hyksos ruled Egypt in Job’s time.

      We also know that Hyksos ruled from the river of Egypt to the river of Euphrates.

      Read interesting article By David J. Gibson - EDOM AND THE HYKSOS

      I will continue the story about Esau soon.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sagittarius 2012 are you not astrologist, are you?

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Quoting from Apocrypha Books under title: Vladimir Uhri: APOCRIPHIC BOOKS - EXTRA BIBLICAL LITERATURE

      From this record it was impossible for Enoch to write the book, since in his time there was only one language and it was not Greek or Latin but similar to Hebrew (Semitic language). The book of Enoch was written in 2nd century B.C. to 1st century A.D. in Greek language and later translated to Latin. It is not present in the Old Testament - Tanakh. The reformers took away any non-canonical books, which were considered as Old Testament books and written in Greek instead of Hebrew. Actually they were not originally present but added to the Bible in Medieval period.

      The New Age people try to impress the populous that they know more and the Church is hiding something from the people is despicable. There is no original

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      It is Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. Are they written in Greek?

      All what you are writing here is false.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sagittarius, you are wrong. Jacob came worrying with the family and Esau with the army when Jacob left Laban.

      Is everything "wrong" to be blame on God and Hebrews?

      All what you are writing is false.

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      You see Vladimir, except narrator's comment, there is nothing in Esau's personality what would indicate that Esau was capable to kill his brother Jacob, and Esau never said that he will kill Jacob.

      From the book of Genesis we know that Esau was: 





      generous person. 

      Trough his firstborn son Eliphaz (known also from the Book of Job), Esau passed the knowledge of God of Abraham to the next generations.

      In fact, Esau was reflection of Christ.

      Interesting is that in His native Aramaic language Christ was called Isa, and Esau in Aramaic is also called Isa.

      On the other hand, Jacob's personality reflects the personality of the Devil; from the Book of Genesis of your Bible, we know that Jacob was cheater, deceiver, usurper, man concern with material possession,  and (Vlad, how do you call the man who except his wife has concubines, Fornicator?). 

      And looking at behavior of Jacob's sons in the Book of Genesis, do you think that they have ever learn from their father about the God of Abraham?

      From extra Biblical sources we know that in fact it was Jacob/ Israel who has murdered his brother Esau/Edom.

      From the Book of Jubilee and the Testament of Twelve Patriarchs we know that Jacob/Israel have killed his brother Esau.

      IV.—THE TESTAMENT OF JUDAH (son of Jacob/Israel) CONCERNING 


      9. Eighteen years we abode at peace, our father and we, with his brother Esau, and his sons with us, after that we came from Mesopotamia, from Laban. 

      And when eighteen years were fulfilled, in the fortieth year of my life, Esau, the brother of my father, came upon us with much people and strong; and he fell by the bow of Jacob, and was taken up dead in Mount Seir: even as he went above Iramna was he slain.

      The Book of Jubilees

      [Chapter 38]

      1.And after that Judah spake to Jacob, his father, and said unto him:

      'Bend thy bow, father, and send forth thy arrows and cast down the adversary and slay the enemy; and mayst thou have the power, for we shall not slay thy brother, for he is such as thou, and he is like thee let us give him (this) honour.' 

      2.Then Jacob bent his bow and sent forth the arrow and struck Esau, his brother (on his right breast) and slew him. 

      3.And again he sent forth an arrow and struck 'Adoran the Aramaean, on the left breast, and drove him backward and slew him.”

      For killing his brother Esau, God sent Jacob/Israel, with his whole family, into slavery in Egypt for 400 years.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sagittarius. Knowing and understanding are two different things. Esau would kill Jacob if God would not intervene. Nobody can keep the Ten Commandment this is why we needing Jesus badly. Broken commandments drive people to Grace. Of course people do not understand this simple wisdom.

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      Vladimir Uhri,

      I have to remind you that you are guest of Sam’s hub and you should stick to the topic, or at least bring something new to it; this is not the place for you to argue with me.

      You can say, for example, who are the Nabataeans according to the Bible.

      Nabataeans are descendents of the first born son of Ishmael.

      In Genesis 25 we reaed:

      Genesis 25 (King James Version)

      “12Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

      13And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations:

      the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth;

      and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

      14And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,

      15Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:

      16These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names,

      by their towns,

      and by their castles;

      twelve princes according to their nations.”

      So, Vladimir,

      the Bible says that Nabataeans are descendents of Prince Nebajoth, the first born son of Ishmael; take a note that Nebaioth is called the prince who was living in the castle and in his own town.

      From every dictionary we know that if someone is called the prince, he must be the son of the king. This statement from the Bible indicates that Ishmael the king, and so it was.

      From archaeological records of Summer, we know that Ishmael was the second king of Isin and his name was Ishme-Dagan.

      "Ishme-Dagan was the fourth king in the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the Sumerian king list. He was the son of Iddin-Dagan and ruled ca. 1889 – 1871 BC He was succeeded by Lipit-Eshtar."

      Lipit-Eshtar, who succeeded Ishmael as a king, is also well known from the Bible.

      Lipit-Eshtar is no one else then Esau, the first born and beloved son of Isaac.

      Genesis 25 reads:

      Genesis 25 (King James Version)

      “20And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padanaram, the sister to Laban the Syrian.

      21And Isaac intreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren: and the LORD was intreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived.

      22And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to enquire of the LORD.

      23And the LORD said unto her,

      Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.

      24And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb.

      25And the first came out red, all over like a hairy garment; and they called his name Esau.

      26And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob:

      and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them.

      27And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.

      28And Isaac loved Esau,”.

      And Genesis 28 reads:

      King James Version (KJV)

      “9Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.”

      With this marriage, Esau inherited, from his uncle and father in law Ishmael, the throne of Isin.

      Almost two thousand years later, descendents of Esau – Idumeans (Edomites), Minaeans, and Nabathaeans (descendents of Nebajoth), were still living peacefully in the area around Petra.

      Now Vladimir remember, you are not on your hub, so you can not remove my comment ?

      And BTW. Vladimir, your comment

      “Lamech's and Cain's spirits jumped over the flood.”

      sounds really ridiculous, it is another of your strange idea which you are trying to put in to the Bible; there is nothing in the Bible what would indicate it.

      You say Vladimir,

      “The earth was cursed and they did not made plaws but weapon of mass destruction.”

      Vladimir, if you have ever read Genesis you should noticed that after Noah’s Flood, people respected the commandment God gave them in Genesis 9, not to kill other people, and people were not killing people. It all has change in Genesis 28, when Israelites were born.

      There is no single incident in the Bible, from the time of Noah until the time when Israel was born, which tells about innocent people being slaughter.

      And then in Genesis 34 we are told:

      Genesis 34

      King James Version (KJV)

      “25And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males.

      26And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out.

      27The sons of Jacob/Israel came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister.

      28They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field,

      29And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the house.”

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      & Sag. Regarding of blocking of your comments: I make it clear to you, remember it is my hub and I will pass what I will choose. Write your own hub and you may block mine as you want. I am interested about faith, which God choose Miriam for give birth to Messiah. I am not using any extra-biblical writings. I do not need it. They only destroying the faith we needing for salvation as well as healing and victory...

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sag. You said:

      "The Bible teaches us that descendants of Lamech have been wiped out by Noah's flood (Genesis 8), so there were not descendants of Lamech during the Late Bronze or Iron Age".

      I know that! But you are always viewing on materialistic level. Lamech's and Cain's spirits jumped over the flood. Now you know who are possessed with. Secondly Lamech’s son was the master craftsman of bronze and iron....

      Gen 4:18 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Ira begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech. Gen 4:19 And lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. Gen 4:23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man… Yes, it was Lamech’s son Tubal-Cain, who was an instructor (master) of every craftsman in bonze and iron (Gen. 4:22). The earth was cursed and they did not made plaws but weapon of mass destruction.

      I am not talking about Late Bronze age…

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      Vladimir Uhri, 

      This hub is about history, not religion, especially your own religion.

      The Bible teaches us that descendants of Lamech have been wiped out by Noah's flood (Genesis 8), so there were not descendants of Lamech during the Late Bronze or Iron Age.

      Polygamy was started again by Jacob/Israel, read (Genesis 29).

      Mary's language was Aramaic not Hebrew, so she could be Idumean (Edomite) or Minaean, as their language was Aramaic, but not Jewish. 

      Historically, Nazareth did not existed until third century CE. , so Mary could not be from Nazareth. 

      If she was from Hebron, as her cousin was, then she was Idumean (Edomite); Hebron was capital city of Idumea (Edom), not Judeah; and Minaeans were related to Edomites.

      If Mary was from Galilee, then Galilee was separated form Judea by Samaria (check the map of Palestine in the times of Christ), and Jews have been removed from Galilee after Maccabees revolt in the second century BC.

      If you have read the Bible, then being good honest man you should noticed, that Jacob, David, Salmon were all wicked men. 

      Vladimir, why do you insist to assign to Christ such a wicked ancestors? There is no linage in the Bible that says that Christ was descendant of them. 

      BTW. Vladimir,  if you wouldn't block my comments on your hub then we could have intelligent discussion, however you chooses to block them only because they did not agree with your own point of view on your own religion.

      Vladimir, maybe you know something about Minaeans?

      Their God whom they called Wadd, was the God of Love and Friendship. Snakes were believed to be sacred to Wadd. 

      Do you remember what Moses was showing to Israelites?

      What is the healing symbol in medicine?

      I think for Minaeans the serpent, "conveyed notions of resurrection and healing".

      Have you read Minaean Medical Papyrus?

      Below are given Dr. Aartun’s decipherment and translation, rendered in English, of the Linear An inscription on the gold pin, “epingle en or”, which is on display in the Museum of Agios Nikolaos in Crete (GORILA IV, pp. 146-147):

      a-ma-wa-si . ka-ni-ya-mi . i-ya . za-ki . se-nu-ti . a-ta-de

      Translation: ”Devout yourself to the true friend who returns to you the good, who is free from hostile thoughts” (lit. “clean from hate”).

      Particularly interesting is a depiction of Minoans in the Egyptian London Medical Papyrus (ca. 1600 BC), with a message rendered in their own Minoan language, but in Egyptian script: 

      sa-n-ta ka-pu-pi wa-ya ’a- ya-ma-n-tá ra-kú-ka-ra, 

      translated by Dr. Aartun in German: “mögest du wie Pupi/Gott beschützen, und, siehe, Glück bringen dem (sehr) Schwachen!”

      (Aartun, Die Minoische Schrift I, pp. 126 – 127)

      What do you think about this papyrus?

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sagit. Some live in the past. We live in present and will have bright future.

    • Vladimir Uhri profile image

      Vladimir Uhri 

      6 years ago from HubPages, FB

      Sagitarius. Lamech was also master of metal workings. Since the earth was cursed by sin, they produced WMD. Thy were murderers, Cain spirit. He started also polygamy.

      It is interesting having skill but not knowing God.

      Mary was Jewish lady born in Nazareth from the line of David.

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      Sam, I know that Minaeans were  in fact Minoans; or correctly said, Minoans were in fact Minaeans.

      In 1628 BC, before eruption of Thera, they have moved from Crete and Thera islands (present Santorini - named by Plato as Atlantis), to area of present Empty Quarter (present Oman and southern Saudi Arabia).

      They build there the City of Iram, grow and traded frankincense, and live there until second century BC, when the rivers and lakes dried out.

      Then, they have moved to Palestine and  lived there until  68 AD, when afraid of Jewish prosecution they " escaped to Pella", and from that time they were known as Nasara or Nazarene.

      One of the Minaeans was Mary, mother of Isa, known to us as Christ.

      Sam, if you are interested in this type of stories I can provide you with interesting links and writings.

      Have a look at this article about Linear A, the first alphabetical script of Minaeans:

      If you find anything interesting about Minaeans, please let me know.

    • SamboRambo profile imageAUTHOR

      Samuel E. Richardson 

      6 years ago from Salt Lake City, Utah

      I don't have anything more just yet. Hopefully, other readers will. Thanks for the fascinating info.

    • Sagittarius 2012 profile image

      Sagittarius 2012 

      6 years ago from Canada

      Interesting hub and awesome pictures.

      From the Bible and history we know that this area was known as Edom.

      From the Brown University professor emerita Martha Sharp Joukowsky, present directing the archaeological excavations of the Great Temple at Petra, Jordan, came this statement:

      "According to tradition, in ca. 1200 BCE, the Petra area (but not necessarily the site itself) was populated by Edomites and the area was known as Edom ("red"). 

      Before the Israelite incursions, the Edomites controlled the trade routes from Arabia in the south to Damascus in the north.

       Little is known about the Edomites at Petra itself, but as a people they were known for [b]their wisdom, their writing, their textile industry, the excellence and fineness of their ceramics, and their skilled metal working."[/b]

      In the last century, the idea of highly developed civilization of Edom was rejected by many Israelite and modern scholars, however, recent excavations such as the 2002-2004 UCSD dig at Khirbat an-Nahs in Jordan have shed new light on history of Edom, unearthing artifacts and evidence of settled society as early as the thirteen through tenth centuries BCE.

      "The Edomite lowlands, home to a large copper ore zone, have been ignored by archaeologists because of the logistical difficulties of working in this hyper-arid region. 

      But with an anthropological perspective, and using high precision radiocarbon dating, this new research demonstrates two major phases of copper production—during the 12th to 11th centuries B.C. and the 10th to 9th centuries B.C. In this period evidence was found of construction of massive fortifications and industrial scale metal production activities, as well as over 100 building complexes."

      Do you have any more informations about the Minaeans?

    • profile image

      wedding cars melbourne 

      7 years ago

      all are the perfect unique destinations.....really an amazing collection....thanks for submitting all of the places....peru mountains are also lovable...

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I have to correct my comment. It wasn't The Biblical Archaeologist. The publication was called Biblical Archaeology Review. And I found it online. The URL is:

      Saudi Aramco World is online also. The URL is:

    • SamboRambo profile imageAUTHOR

      Samuel E. Richardson 

      7 years ago from Salt Lake City, Utah

      I've been planning on writing about those, too, unless you want to. Also, there are caves in Vietnam, I believe the biggest ever.

    • Bobri Dobri profile image

      Bobri Dobri 

      7 years ago from Oklahoma

      Beautiful place and beautiful hub! I have never heard about this place, but I've seen something very similar in India, it's called Ellora caves.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Wow. A very informative article!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Fascinating! I've always been interested in Petra and its origin and you shed a lot of light on it. This was an interesting piece, thanks!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Fascinating HUB. I used to subscribe to or read Aramco World and The Biblical Archaeologist. Those publications revealed some fascinating stuff! That was a while ago. Your HUB has reminded of them. I think I'll go check to see if you can find them on the Internet. I used to review the material in print, hard copy. This is the first SamboRambo HUB I've read. I'm going to go look at your other HUBS. Have a great day!

    • SamboRambo profile imageAUTHOR

      Samuel E. Richardson 

      7 years ago from Salt Lake City, Utah

      Thank you, all, for your visit, and your comments. Yes, Roaster, Indiana was there. I'll have to watch that movie again and watch for it.

    • peanutroaster profile image


      7 years ago from New England

      Awesome place. Featured in Indiana Jones I believe.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I too fascinate about the ancient times.

      Reading your hub made me feel that I am being driven there. It's really fascinating.

    • platinumOwl4 profile image


      7 years ago

      This hub only serves to enhance my fascinating with ancient civilizations. What they did in stone is mind altering.

    • 6 String Veteran profile image

      6 String Veteran 

      7 years ago

      Great Hub. I have been to but my exposure to the ancient city of Petra--also the name of an 80s 'Christian heavy metal' band, btw--has been significantly augmented after reading this.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Great photos, wonderful article, thanks for sharing

    • SamboRambo profile imageAUTHOR

      Samuel E. Richardson 

      7 years ago from Salt Lake City, Utah

      Thank you! I, also, am fascinated by Machu Picchu. I understand they had quite a sophisticated sewer or water system.

    • theherbivorehippi profile image


      7 years ago from Holly, MI

      I just finished a very long project about Petra for one of my clients and I have become obsessed with it! I've had Machu Picchu at the top of my "list" of places I must get to soon but Petra has moved to the top. This place fascinates me. Great hub!

    • profile image

      Bus charter sydney 

      7 years ago

      This is the historical place for a holiday trip. Thanks for sharing with us..

    • Barbara Kay profile image

      Barbara Badder 

      7 years ago from USA

      This is an awesome hub and was interesting. I would like to see Petra. Watching the video, makes you realize just how massive in size this is.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I've wanted to visit Petra ever since I saw an exhibit in a museum in Ottawa some years back. This is an awesome hub! I'm going to bookmark it for further reference. Thank you!

    • roc6 profile image


      7 years ago from Cape Town, South Africa

      Thanks, brought back memories I had been there several years back. One of my favorites, lots of great information.

    • Alastar Packer profile image

      Alastar Packer 

      7 years ago from North Carolina

      Although I've read some on "hidden" Petra your article SR has added considerably to my knowledge.. The rock cuts have always been fascinating and I didn't realize the entrance was that long. Good write with new info, pics & vids.

    • livelonger profile image

      Jason Menayan 

      7 years ago from San Francisco

      Thank you for this great trip down memory lane. I visited Petra in the summer of 1994 and was stunned by its beauty and scale. It was quite a sight to see such perfectly designed buildings carved out of pinkish stone. Would love to see it again!


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