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Ancient Greece Odyssey: Epidaurus

Updated on January 15, 2015

Part Seven of Ancient Greece Odyssey

F ollow me now to Epidaurus, an ancient Greek spa blessed by the healing god Asclepius.

Even today, Epidaurus is an idyllic retreat. The Epidaurus Theater continues to host dramas on its 2,300-year-old stage. Sightseers still flock to the ruined splendor of Epidaurus' temples, hostels, stadium and music hall. Visitors who step away from the bustle of tour groups may find peace and healing of the spirit in the shade of ancient pines.

If you've just discovered Ancient Greece Odyssey, this is part seven of a myth scholar's travel diary from a trip to Greece in 2005.

Notes: Epidauros is a transliteration of Greek Ἐπίδαυρος into English. Asklepios (Ἀσκληπιός) is the Greek for Latin Asclepius.

All photos and text © E Brundige 2009

Epidauros: Travel Diary, 7 May 2005, Nafplia Palace Hotel

Our expedition for the day was to the soothing sanctuary of Epidaurus. Once again, the long drive wended its way through farmland and rocky hills, olive groves and vineyards. Sone walls marking boundaries might be hundreds or even thousands of years old. We passed one Mycenaean culvert nearly 3500 years old!

We headed first for the theater, a beautifully-preserved monument in native limestone that was embedded in and preserved by the earth of the hill behind it. The acoustics of the Epidaurus Theater have been legendary since ancient times. I had promised my tour group that I would recite some Homer, and I think I did a fair job of it. The sound of my voice echoing back clearly from the top of the theater was very unnerving!

(Here's a rough recording of the opening lines of the Iliad. I need a real mike!)

Photo Gallery: Epidaurus Theater

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Epidaurus Theater, 4th century BCE. The architect was Polykleitos the Younger, son of the famous sculptor Polykleitos (artist of the Diadoumenos sculpture I showed in Part IIB).Epidaurus Theater, the Cavea (seating area). Some scholars think the upper levels were a Hellenistic or Roman addition. Its current configuration seats 12,300.Your narrator attempting to declaim Homer. Thank goodness the theater was NOT packed; I have never performed in a place with acoustics with a 3-second echo, and even a whisper comes through loud and clear.Lefthand (northwest) side of cavea. In the foreground is the modern-day stage built to protect the ancient one. Since 1954, the Epidaurus Festival has staged ancient Greek tragedies and comedies as well as more modern productions (as well as some ShaYour narrator enjoying the view from the upper seats of Epidaurus Theater. What a lovely place! Notice the side gates built like the Propylaia of Athens.
Epidaurus Theater, 4th century BCE. The architect was Polykleitos the Younger, son of the famous sculptor Polykleitos (artist of the Diadoumenos sculpture I showed in Part IIB).
Epidaurus Theater, 4th century BCE. The architect was Polykleitos the Younger, son of the famous sculptor Polykleitos (artist of the Diadoumenos sculpture I showed in Part IIB).
Epidaurus Theater, the Cavea (seating area). Some scholars think the upper levels were a Hellenistic or Roman addition. Its current configuration seats 12,300.
Epidaurus Theater, the Cavea (seating area). Some scholars think the upper levels were a Hellenistic or Roman addition. Its current configuration seats 12,300.
Your narrator attempting to declaim Homer. Thank goodness the theater was NOT packed; I have never performed in a place with acoustics with a 3-second echo, and even a whisper comes through loud and clear.
Your narrator attempting to declaim Homer. Thank goodness the theater was NOT packed; I have never performed in a place with acoustics with a 3-second echo, and even a whisper comes through loud and clear.
Lefthand (northwest) side of cavea. In the foreground is the modern-day stage built to protect the ancient one. Since 1954, the Epidaurus Festival has staged ancient Greek tragedies and comedies as well as more modern productions (as well as some Sha
Lefthand (northwest) side of cavea. In the foreground is the modern-day stage built to protect the ancient one. Since 1954, the Epidaurus Festival has staged ancient Greek tragedies and comedies as well as more modern productions (as well as some Sha
Your narrator enjoying the view from the upper seats of Epidaurus Theater. What a lovely place! Notice the side gates built like the Propylaia of Athens.
Your narrator enjoying the view from the upper seats of Epidaurus Theater. What a lovely place! Notice the side gates built like the Propylaia of Athens.

The Myth of the God Asclepius

Hero, Healer, Son of Apollo

Son of Apollo should raise eyebrows among those who know Greek myth. Zeus was infamously prolific in his philandering, but Apollo's affairs were seldom fruitful. In fact, they were often fatal to the unlucky mortals that caught his eye. Asclepius' mother Coronis was no exception. After she dared to take a human lover of her own, the god (or his sister Artemis, by some accounts) slew her for infidelity. Apollo rescued his unborn son from the flames of Coronis' funeral pyre.

Apollo placed his son Asclepius in the foster-care of the centaur Chiron, a "wise man" figure who appears in many myths. Asclepius surpassed his master's healing arts. In recognition of his skill, Athena gave Asclepius a great gift: two vials of blood from the body of slain Medusa, one of which killed instantly, the other possessing miraculous healing properties. But when Asclepius resuscitated a dead man, Zeus put a stop to him and his would-be Lazarus with a thunderbolt. Power over life and death belonged to gods alone.

Later myths assert that Asclepius was deified posthumously at his father's behest. Like Dionysos, Asclepius became a popular dying-and-resurrected god, one who had suffered and tasted mortality. He offered healing, compassion, and personal interactions with worshipers in contrast to the impersonal, official cults of the Olympians. In the Hellenistic age, classical gods faded into caricatures, literary devices. Yet Asclepius' popularity endured and increased. Asclepius' sanctuary at Epidaurus flourished from the 5th century BCE through the 4th century CE.

Note: See theoi.com's Asklepios entry for several pages of quotes from ancient Greek writers on the myth and cult of Asclepius.

The Epidaurus Museum - Travel Diary, 7th May 2005, Nafplia Palace Hotel

Next we visited the Epidaurus Museum. It was a fascinating collection of offerings by grateful patients. Some had dedicated portraits of gods and goddesses, some replicas of the body parts that had been cured. Accounts etched in stone recorded miracles: hearing restored, a spear-point dropping from an old wound during a night spent sleeping by the god's temple. A cabinet of surgical tools reminds us that the priests of Asclepius were also doctors.

I was drawn to several statues of Athena, my favorite goddess. Many were casts; the originals now reside in the National Museum in Athens. There was also a striking Hellenistic portrait of Asclepius with a kind and benevolent face (left, Roman copy of a 4th century BCE Greek original). His serpent, an ancient symbol of death and rebirth, finds its way into modern medical symbolism -- doubled in America, where everything is supersized. There was also an intricate Corinthian capital, surprisingly well-preserved, and large portions of the temples of Asclepius and of Artemis.

Many ancient cultures revered and feared serpents, along with any other beast that was especially lethal for its size. Animals with the power to cause instant death seemed to have power over life itself -- perhaps they knew how to cure as well as kill? Moreover, the snake was observed to shed its skin and emerge renewed, apparently younger and healthier.

The caduceus, the winged staff with two serpents (left), was not a medical symbol in antiquity; it was the wand of the messenger-god Hermes. He used it to guide the spirits of the dead to the afterlife. American medicine confused it with the single snake-wrapped staff of Asclepius, possibly conflating it with the symbolism of medieval alchemy which took Hermes as its patron. However, American EMS services use the Star of Life, a blue symbol with the single-snake Rod of Asclepius (above right), which is also more common in European medicine.

Photo Gallery: Objects from the Epidaurus Museum

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Surgical instruments from the latter days of the sanctuary. Even as faith in gods faded, faith in medicine grew. Asclepius' priests became skilled doctors. This enabled Eupidaurus to flourish into the 4th century of the Christian era, outlasting mostVotives in the Epidaurus Museum, probably gifts of thankful patients to patron goddesses. At right, Athena. In the middle, the goddess Hygeia, "Health," with a snake around her neck. At left is an "Aphrodite in Arms." If you're a student trying to leMore statues. I'm not sure about the lefthand figure -- possibly a Roman portrait of Asclepius, armed? -- but in the middle is another Hygeia, goddess of health. It's a pity she and the Athena at right (with a serpent around an olive tree) have lost A 4th century BCE Corinthian capital, the ornamental top of a column. A beauty, isn't it? It was found buried near the tholos of Asklepios, his circular temple, whose column capitals seem to be copied from it. Scholars guess it was an architect's modYes, you've seen her before, since she's now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. This personification of a breeze (like Zephyr, only female) once adorned the roof of the temple of Asclepius.
Surgical instruments from the latter days of the sanctuary. Even as faith in gods faded, faith in medicine grew. Asclepius' priests became skilled doctors. This enabled Eupidaurus to flourish into the 4th century of the Christian era, outlasting most
Surgical instruments from the latter days of the sanctuary. Even as faith in gods faded, faith in medicine grew. Asclepius' priests became skilled doctors. This enabled Eupidaurus to flourish into the 4th century of the Christian era, outlasting most
Votives in the Epidaurus Museum, probably gifts of thankful patients to patron goddesses. At right, Athena. In the middle, the goddess Hygeia, "Health," with a snake around her neck. At left is an "Aphrodite in Arms." If you're a student trying to le
Votives in the Epidaurus Museum, probably gifts of thankful patients to patron goddesses. At right, Athena. In the middle, the goddess Hygeia, "Health," with a snake around her neck. At left is an "Aphrodite in Arms." If you're a student trying to le
More statues. I'm not sure about the lefthand figure -- possibly a Roman portrait of Asclepius, armed? -- but in the middle is another Hygeia, goddess of health. It's a pity she and the Athena at right (with a serpent around an olive tree) have lost
More statues. I'm not sure about the lefthand figure -- possibly a Roman portrait of Asclepius, armed? -- but in the middle is another Hygeia, goddess of health. It's a pity she and the Athena at right (with a serpent around an olive tree) have lost
A 4th century BCE Corinthian capital, the ornamental top of a column. A beauty, isn't it? It was found buried near the tholos of Asklepios, his circular temple, whose column capitals seem to be copied from it. Scholars guess it was an architect's mod
A 4th century BCE Corinthian capital, the ornamental top of a column. A beauty, isn't it? It was found buried near the tholos of Asklepios, his circular temple, whose column capitals seem to be copied from it. Scholars guess it was an architect's mod
Yes, you've seen her before, since she's now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. This personification of a breeze (like Zephyr, only female) once adorned the roof of the temple of Asclepius.
Yes, you've seen her before, since she's now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. This personification of a breeze (like Zephyr, only female) once adorned the roof of the temple of Asclepius.

Translation of an Inscription at Epidaurus

“A small dumb child came to the sanctuary to beseech the god to give him a voice. After performing all the preliminary sacrifices and rites, the Pyrphoros, the servant of the temple, turned to the father of the child and asked him, 'Do you promise to pay the medical fees within one year if your child is cured?' 'I promise,' replied the child suddenly.”
-- Source: Epidaurus: The Sanctuary of Asclepios and the Museum by A. Charitonidou

The Sanctuary of Asclepius

Travel Diary, 7th May 2005, Nafplia Palace Hotel

We moved outside to explore the sprawling grounds of the sanctuary complex. Nearby lay the foundations of a hotel or hospice, a jumble of moss-covered stone blocks from what was once a two-story building. Squares of twenty rooms each surrounded four internal courtyards: 160 rooms altogether. A short stroll away was the Greek bath-house, with a few isolated bath-tubs sitting incongruously under open sky. There was a large banqueting complex to which had been added a Roman Odeion, a music hall. There were also a gymnasium and athletic grounds for patients on the mend, including a stadium, a track for footraces.


Stadium of Epidaurus: bleachers on left side reconstructed

Closer to the entrance of the sanctuary were temples. Artemis had a place here, since she is goddess of childbirth as well as the hunt. All that was left of the Asklepion, the tholos-tomb for the god Asclepius, were concentric rings of stone foundations. There was said to be a labyrinth beneath them where the serpents of the healer-god were kept. Nearby were the remains of the Abaton, a long dormitory where suppliants once slept and prayed for a dream-visit from the god who might prescribe a cure or even heal them while they slept.

The grounds of Asclepius' sanctuary were covered in tall waving grass and flowers, especially chamomile. At the end of our guided tour, I returned to a rock beneath a tree growing in the ruins of the hospice. I sat and listened to the wind rushing through the pines, a murmur like the distant sea beyond the horizon. It was a restful, soothing place. It felt as if some healing magic of Asclepius still lingered there. Did I hear the hiss of snakes, or was it only the wind?


Epidaurus Hospice

The Cult of Epidaurus

How the God Healed the Sick

Suppliants to Asclepius' sanctuary at Epidaurus followed a set procedure. An inscription at the gates prescribed that they purify their thoughts. Once inside, after praying to the god at his temple, they would wash at the Sacred Fountain, then make what offering they could afford. The wealthy sacrificed an ox, others sacrificed a rooster, and the poor brought fruits and cakes. Those from far away offered money.

Patients were then ready to begin treatment. We don't know what rites they underwent to prepare them to meet the god, but there seems to have been fasting, perhaps some pampering and physical therapy at the baths and gymnasium, and religious rituals designed to put them in a receptive, exalted state. Some guess the labyrinth beneath the god's temple was used for this purpose.

The most important part of the cult was the ritual of Enkoimesis, "sleeping in." The long dormitory-like Abaton near the god's temple had small cells where the patients would be led by torchlight. They would recline on kline couches. Dropping off to the sound of hymns, the scent of incense, and the pure air of the god's sanctuary around them, they would fall asleep entranced. During the night, many patients dreamed that the god came to them and cured them: many would demonstrate wounds closed, scars healed, or other miracles to the the attending priest, who came to them in the morning. The priest would ask, "What did you dream?" and record dreams and their results -- which in later centuries became "case studies" that priests could apply to similar cases.

Photo: The Sanctuary of Epidaurus

Sanctuary of Epidaurus, temple of Asklepios
Sanctuary of Epidaurus, temple of Asklepios

I spent most of my time at Epidaurus drinking in the atmosphere instead of snapping photos, but here's one overview. I'm not 100% of the foundations in the foreground -- I should've taken notes! -- but in the background, both under scaffolding, are the foundations of the Asklepion, Asclepius' temple (the rest is inside the museum), and at right the columns of the Abaton dormitory where suppliants dreamed their cures.

Epidaurus and the Therapeutic Method

As Greek science and medicine began to replace old superstitions, the sanctuary at Epidaurus adapted. Instead of being physically cured by the god during the Enkoimesis sleeping ritual, the patient would simply dream of the god prescribing the cure -- or perhaps have a cryptic dream that needed interpretation. The priest who asked, "What did you dream?" would then interpret the dream and prescribe a diet, medical procedures, and/or other treatments during an extended stay at the sanctuary. It was a unique doctor-patient relationship augmented by faith and hope.

In her lecture about Epidaurus, Dr. Christine Downing who led our tour discussed how Sigmund Freud was inspired by Epidaurus. Freud did not aim to copy the therapeutic method of Epidaurus blindly, but simply to understand and apply the psychological factors that may have contributed to its success. He experimented with using a kline couch to help the patient relax (whence "clinic"), he sought for clues to a patient's psychology and stresses in dreams, and he used a "talking cure" to help the patient heal him/herself via an altered state of consciousness. The word therapist comes from the ancient Greek word for the attendant-priest who asked, "What did you dream?" (Chris said the priest was a therapeut, but I can't find this word; it may be therapon, attendant.)

By coincidence, our visit to Epidaurus was on Freud's birthday.

Where Is Epidaurus, Greece? - From Google Maps

A markerTheater at Epidaurus,Greece -
Epidaurus 21052, Greece
get directions

The Journey Continues...

Next, I'll be exploring the medieval port-city of Nauplion where we stayed during our expeditions to Mycenae, Tiryns and Epidaurus!

© 2009 Ellen Brundige

Guestbook for Travelers

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  • Carina99 profile image

    Carina99 5 years ago

    I love your lens. Thank you very much.

  • profile image

    crstnblue 5 years ago

    Wonderful lens and chosen topic! :)

    Epidavros is a miracle in many ways, worth to pay a visit in a lifetime and experience the unique ancient "acoustic system"!

  • sushilkin lm profile image

    sushilkin lm 6 years ago

    Thanks for sharing.

  • JeremiahStanghini profile image

    JeremiahStanghini 6 years ago

    Looks like surgical tools haven't much evolved from this era. ;-)

    With Love and Gratitude,

    Jeremiah

  • profile image

    jbarnhart41 7 years ago

    What a beautiful lens with fantastic pictures. I would love to go there but I haven't worked up the courage to fly across the ocean yet :) Maybe after the kids are grown...daydreaming now.

  • mythphile profile image
    Author

    Ellen Brundige 7 years ago from California

    @julieannbrady: Aw hon. I was wondering about that.

    Maybe by the time I've finished you'll be able to reschedule that trip!

    I wish I could send you to Epidaurus right now. Even in ruins, it still had such a feeling of peace. It's as if the air still remembered that once upon a time, people in pain and in trouble had gone there, and people with compassion had comforted and helped them with what resources were available in those days.

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    julieannbrady 7 years ago

    Another stellar presentation that is quite captivating -- since it is now highly doubtful that I will be jetting to Greece this fall, I am quite grateful that you have presented it so nicely for us to feel like we did actually visit.

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    anonymous 7 years ago

    My goodness Greek Geek, this is an education visiting your lenses on Greece. I feel like I am discovering so much through you eye, words and camera. You are very knowledgeable, and thank you so much for sharing.

  • profile image

    Neel7 7 years ago

    The area of Epidaurus Greece has become a major cultural attraction due to its rich history and its vibrant present. Epidaurus an ancient city of Greece on the northeast coast of the Peloponnesus. The most popular archaeological site at Epidaurus is its ancient theatre, one of the many Greek achievements in terms of ancient construction. Epidaurus Greece :

    http://www.europevoyage.net/epidaurus-greece.html

  • Kate Phizackerl1 profile image

    Kate Phizackerl1 7 years ago

    One of the best lenses on Squidoo. Blessed by an Angel.

  • pkmcruk profile image

    pkmcr 7 years ago from Cheshire UK

    There isn't a single page of yours about Greece that I don't come away from having discovered some fascinating facts, enjoyed reading and being amazed at how beautifully crafted they are. This is another one that I will be favouriting to come back and study again! Blessed by a Squid Angel :-)

  • rubyandmahoney profile image

    rubyandmahoney 7 years ago

    I visited Greece in 1988 as part of a summer school tour and the theatre at Epidaurus was one of my favorite stops. I was amazed at the acoustics and the surrounding scenery is beautiful. Your pictures are lovely and I enjoyed reading about Asclepius as well. Thank you for sharing your travels. They have taken me back in time to that magical summer so long ago.