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Quiz on Australia
How Much Do You Know About It?
There is much in the news lately about this country but people around the world are mostly ignorant of its many features and advantages. Test your knowledge and earn heaps of points. This wonderful country is isolated from the main tourist route by oceans.
If you take this quiz you might need an Atlas and also some general knowledge on explorers and modern history. Guaranteed you will learn a lot as well. To begin with it has unique flora and fauna, starting with the kangaroos, emus, koala bears and wattle. It has been continually inhabited by Australian aborigines for at least 60,000 years. It has a wide diversity of cultures and an erratic and harsh climate.
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Its Brief History
Australian rock art is subjected to copyright and indigenous control. for the most part. But some are in books and on sites owned by the Australian Govenrment or Dept.of Aborigine Affairs.
Australia was 'discovered' by European explorers who took little notice of this great southern land. Some were washed ashore in ship wrecks off the Western Australian coast and may have survived there and fathered children from aborigine tribes. There are paintings of european style ships in aborigine art work so that part of the history is a bit of a mystery, That is until one looks at some cave paintings in Queensland where the interior of an explorer's ship is detailed, along with the decks, cabins and cargo.
Another mystery painting depicts a white man on horseback and is dated years before any known explorers were in the region. Only the Spanish are known to have taken horses with them to other countries, such as to the Americas. No skeletal remains of early white settlers have been located, as far as we know, but they may have been buried in the traditional aboriginal way.
There are certainly some stranger looking aborigines in the Northern region of Western Australia. Whereas the characteristics of these people is usually black skinned with straight black hair and brown eyes, the group referred to have white hair, blue eyes and not so dark skin. Aboriginal art in the region depicts a European type boat as the only record of what might have occurred to explain the phenomina
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The New Land Served a Purpose
Captain Cook took possession of the east coast of Australia on instruction from King George III of England on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island. He named eastern Australia 'New South Wales'. Photo and information from Australian Government Website.
The new land was a welcome addition to the British Empire which was straining under the weight of overpopulation in the cities, poverty for the majority of its citizens and a large criminal element growing worse daily as people tried to survive.
Coupled with those problems was the loss of the American penal settlements following the revolution in that country which saw the achievement of American independence.
The first fleet comprised eleven ships with a large contingent of convicts headed for Australia, never to return,
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Problems for the New Colony
Botany Bay was not suitable for settlement and Captain Phillip took the fleet up to Port Jackson, later Sydney Harbour The land was poor and the convicts were not farmers so the colony struggled.
There were 759 convicts of which 23 died during the voyage,. It also included some marine guards (and some with families) and civil officers.
With no hope of raising crops around Sydney it was Paramatta, 25 kilometers upstream, that was chosen as the farming hub of the colony.
Wikipedia notes of the arrival of the first fleet "This was one of the world's greatest sea voyages - eleven vessels carrying about 1,487 people and stores had travelled for 252 days for more than 15,000 miles (24,000 km) without losing a ship. Forty-eight people had died on the journey, a death rate of just over three per cent. Given the rigours of the voyage, the navigational problems, the poor condition and sea-faring inexperience of the convicts, the primitive medical knowledge, the lack of precautions against scurvy, the crammed and foul conditions of the ships, poor planning and inadequate equipment, this was a remarkable achievement."
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As ever more people arrived, mainly from England, more colonies were established. The following information is from Australian government web site.
Van Diemen's Land at Risdon in 1803. Lieutenant John Bowen arrived with 50 settlers, crew, soldiers and convicts. It was abandoned and then in 1804 Lieutenant David Collins created a settlement at Hobart, February 1804. The colony of Van Diemen's Land was established in its own right in 1825 and officially became known as Tasmania in 1856.
Western Australia came about in 1827. Major Edmund Lockyer established the first small settlement at King Georges Sound (Albany). In 1829 the Swan River Colony was proclaimed with Captain James Stirling as its first Governor. It was a British penal settlement in 1849 with the first convicts arrival in 1850.
South Australia came about in 1836. By 1842 it was a crown colony but never a convict colony. Ex-convicts settled there, however, and around 38,000 immigrants settled in the region by 1850.
Victoria separated from New South Wales in 1851. Although earlier settlements had occurred it was before the Henty brothers arived in Portland Bay in 1834, and John Batman settled Melbourne, that the Port Phillip District was sanctioned (1837). The first immigrant ships arrived1839.
Other states followed and the name 'Australia' was suggested by Matthew Flinders and supported by Governor Macquarie (1810 - 1821). "At a meeting in 1899, the Premiers of the other Colonies agreed to locate the new federal capital of Australia in New South Wales, and added this section to the Australian Constitution. In 1909, the state of New South Wales surrendered a portion of this territory to the Commonwealth of Australia, the site of present day Canberra."
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