ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Chad

Updated on January 16, 2012

This land-locked state in central Africa is one of the world's poorest countries. It has no railways, and most roads are unusable in the rainy season. The barren Sahara covers half of it. Chad, once part of French Equatorial Africa, kept its close ties with France after independence in 1960. Relations were strained in 1975, when the French tried to secure the release of two French hostages held by rebels. But in 1976 the two countries signed new economic and military agreements.

Chad consists of an enormous depression, bordered in the north, south and east by mountains. Lake Chad, on the western frontier, was once an inland sea. It is only 1.6 meters deep and its area varies from 9,840 to 25,760 square km depending on rainfall in the region.

The climate is tropical, but varies widely. The wooded savannah of the south has 100 em of rain a year. The desert north of Lake Chad has only 13 em. About 96% of Chad's people live by farming. Yet crops can be grown only in the wetter south, which produces millet, guinea corn, pulses and cotton - the chief export. Government schemes are increasing yields of groundnuts and rice, and of fish from Lake Chad.

Cattle, sheep and goats are raised in the north. This area is recovering from the severe drought of 1968-73, which killed many people and at least 70% of the livestock. The country's only mineral is natron - a carbonate of sodium. Apart from small textile and food processing plants at N'djamena, Sarh and Moundou, there is no manufacturing. Chad imports all its petroleum products, machinery, vehicles and most of its manufactured goods.

Life expectancy is low: 35 years for women and 29 years for men. But the population is increasing by 2% a year. More than 100 languages and dialects are spoken; French is the official language. The people of the south are Bantu-speaking negroes. To the north are Sudanese negroes, with Tuareg-Berbers in the far north.

Half of the people are Muslims, many speaking Arabic. About 5% are Christians and the rest follow tribal religions. Chad was part of the Kanem Empire from the 9th century AD and became part of French Equatorial Africa in 1897. It gained its independence in 1960.

Since 1965 many people have died in sporadic unrest caused by Muslim northerners, who accuse the government of favoring the Banru peoples.

A military group seized control in 1975, and appealed to the Muslims to join in building a new state.

In 1978 a government of national unity was established, but it failed. In April 1979 a transitional government took office under a Muslim, Mohamed Shawa.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)