ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Art of Visual Art

Updated on January 24, 2017

The Importance of Guiding the Viewer's Attention

Laying out the composition of a painting, picture or page requires understanding how the eye of the viewer can be guided. The viewer's attention will naturally be drawn toward something of interest. The job of the artist is to control the viewer's eye in communicating a message or feeling through visusal imagery. The following basic design principles will help the artist hold, guide and control the viewers eye.

Proportions: All the great masters, including Da Vinci and Rembrandt, composed their paintings according to the golden mean and other proportional configurations. The space within the matrix must be divided according to some sort of mathematical consideration based on the dimensions of the outer edges. Squares, triangles, and circles can serve as underlying elements within the composition, the triangle being the most powerful.

Composition: The artist must establish a center of interest. Next, he must establish dominant and subordinates images. One image must reign supremely. The most classic placement of an image and the easiest for attracting attention, is to center it. However, this is the least creative solution.

Active and Passive Design Elements: Know why each design element is to be used. Edges, values, and patterns should all have a purpose. It is best to start with a premise and stick with it. Be consistent with your design elements. Don't build a bicycle with lawn mower parts.

Repetition: Repeat lines or images for emphasis. Variations of repetitions will attract attention. Vary rhythms and patterns slightly to create more interest and excitement.

Line: The use of lines show movement and direction. They should work within the space. Line things up by having the lines make sense. They need to relate to something in the picture. For instance, a horizontal line can be used to create a feeling of repose. Vertical lines add to the vertical direction of the picture. A diagonal line is considered very dynamic. Diagonal lines can lead the eye to vertical elements. Straight lines and curved lines show different types of movement and can work together.

Shape: Use shapes according to their internal direction. The shapes should relate to each other in harmonious ways and be pleasing to the eye.

Value: The use of tonal shading indicates the weight of objects and reveals their heaviness or lightness. The use of value can also provide gradation or contrast within the composition. Lights and darks equal shadows and highlights. Painters focus either on the highlighted areas or the shadow areas, not both. For example, Rembrandt focused on the details in the shadows only.

Texture: Create interest by activating the tactile sense memory.

Color: The science of color is used in all artwork. Try to find information on color and become a colorist. (Norman Rockwell was an excellent colorist.)

White or Open Space: Blank or open space should work within the movement of the piece, whether vertical, horizontal or diagonal.

To keep the viewers attention on the art piece and the area of emphasis:

1. Do not stair step the eye off the picture or page.

2. Do not ribbon the space by repeating a design element with no interest in between. Stripes are boring.

3. Do not divide attention, as it is the artist's job to reveal where the emphasis is. Two equally interesting areas will confuse the viewer and cause him to look back and forth.

4. Corner design or decorations should be avoided unless one corner is the area of interest or focus, or emphasis.

5. Negative / Positive space must be considered carefully and integrated with visual balance.

Side Notes:

* Knowing the basic rules of composition layout allows an artist to break them.

* Intuition can be useful after one is exposed to the principles on a conscious level. However, one cannot just guess, contrary to popular opinion. Knowledge of concrete design principles "programs" the intuition.

* A slick presentation is one that is "well cared for." This term relates to all finished pieces, whether graphic art presentations, gallery ready paintings, or illustrations, etc.

* It is frustrating to the artist if he does not have a framework in which to put his creative ideas. Freedom within an active or inactive grid is the key.

* Composition guidelines are based on what is pleasing to the eye so that your viewer will be enticed into looking: not merely glancing, but rather, gazing.

* A graphic designer must know why he has made every decision. He/She will have to justify them to his/her client. (The graphic designer must be ready to start from scratch, if the client does not agree with the choices and design decisions he/she made.)

* Keep in mind that too much design freedom makes the challenge of creativity and imagination more difficult. Focus on one design element, such as line, shape or negative/positive to start with and build from there.

* Words can help a graphic designer come up with ideas. For example, lets say the assignment is Halloween themed images. A designer can come up with a list of words, such as dark, dingy, scary, witches, black cats, dusk, windy and howling to spark his imagination. Answering What, When, Who, Where and Why will also fuel a designer's creativity and imagination.

Being aware of these basic guidelines will enable you to look at a blank canvas, page, or illustration board to begin seeing possibilities. Your rectangular matrix is a playground to experiment, manipulate and organize any image or idea you wish. Now, go create a sight to be seen!




Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Kathryn L Hill profile imageAUTHOR

      Kathryn L Hill 

      5 years ago from LA

      Thanks for stopping by.

    • RTalloni profile image

      RTalloni 

      5 years ago from the short journey

      Enjoyed reading over these design principles for page lay out very much. A look at well-done advertising certainly proves many of the points you highlight here.

    • Kathryn L Hill profile imageAUTHOR

      Kathryn L Hill 

      5 years ago from LA

      There is nothing like oil painting. I would not be afraid of lead. I do not think modern oil paint in tubes has any! Thanks for stopping by.

    • conradofontanilla profile image

      conradofontanilla 

      5 years ago from Philippines

      Your Hub gives me a thorough review of art principles. Rembrandt is my favorite. I like the mystery in darkness, and study of character in his self-portraits. I like acrylic as it dries fast to show results. I wanted to try oil but am wary of lead in it.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)