Recent Natural Disasters - the Worst Fires

Bushfire in Victoria 2009

Source
Essential Bushfire Safety Tips (Landlinks Press)
Essential Bushfire Safety Tips (Landlinks Press)

Bushfire tragedies need not happen. Homes need not be destroyed. Lives need not be endangered. Post-bushfire scientific research has found that 90% of homes can be saved from even the fiercest wildfires when defended by one or more people over the age of 10 who know what to do.

In the widespread conflagrations we now experience, householders cannot expect a fire unit to be available on each doorstep. Bushfire safety is a personal responsibility. The purpose of Essential Bushfire Safety Tips is to enable and empower this process.

 

This is a follow on from "Recent Natural Disasters - the Worst Earthquakes". The theme is the common perception that natural disasters are occurring more frequently as well as becoming more intense. I address seven types of natural disasters (Earthquakes, Fires, Floods, Avalanches, Cyclones/Hurricanes/Tornadoes, Tsunamis and Volcanoes) while exploring this issue. Pickrell (cited below) argues that scientists state natural disasters are not becoming either more frequent or stronger in nature. He says that natural disasters are more able to cause damage because populations and development are increasing, particularly in coastal areas. The other side of the story is represented in the Sydney Morning Herald (cited below) stating that 2010 was the second worst year for natural disasters since 1980 with 950 recorded disasters, 295,000 people dead and a disaster cost of $130 billion. Increased media coverage and technology is why many think there are more natural disasters than before.

This aspect of the series will focus on fires. The improvement of fire prevention technology means that most fires occur in rural settings. In the United States and Canada the term 'wildfire' is used while in Australia and New Zealand the word is 'bushfire' for these devastating conflagrations.

Victorian Bushfires Map

Map of the Victorian bushfires (Based on data from the DSE at 9am 8 February 2009).
Map of the Victorian bushfires (Based on data from the DSE at 9am 8 February 2009). | Source

View From the Kitchen Window

This is a view from the kitchen window, when two fronts attacked the property from two directions at once - Daniel Cleaveley.
This is a view from the kitchen window, when two fronts attacked the property from two directions at once - Daniel Cleaveley. | Source

Black Saturday House Remains

A house damaged by bushfires in the Kinglake complex, in Yarra Glen. Photo taken by myself with verbal permission of the owner, February 10 2009.
A house damaged by bushfires in the Kinglake complex, in Yarra Glen. Photo taken by myself with verbal permission of the owner, February 10 2009. | Source
Community Bushfire Safety
Community Bushfire Safety

Managing community safety requires a diversity of knowledge and an understanding of the many social processes that shape and ultimately determine a community’s resilience to bushfire. Community Bushfire Safety is accessible to practitioners, policy-makers, researchers and students. While the research reported has been undertaken in Australia, much of the material is generic and is likely to be relevant and useful to those dealing with community bushfire safety elsewhere in the world.

 

'Black Saturday' - 2009 Victorian Bushfires

From 7 February to 14 March, 2009, 173 people died, and 414 were injured as 4,500 square kilometres of the State of Victoria in Australia burned.  Victoria, one of the smallest Australian States, is 237,629 square kilometres in size, about a third the size of Texas. As many as 400 fires occurred affecting 78 communities across Victoria. 7,562 people were displaced and over 11,000 livestock were consumed by the conflagrations.  Over 1 million animals altogether perished, with many also being injured (many kangaroos and koalas that survived were given veterinary care as a result of their burns). Over 3,500 structures were totally destroyed, 2,030 of these were homes. Many thousands of other buildings were damaged.

Black Saturday was the 8th deadliest fire in recorded history. Black Saturday is conservatively estimated to have cost around 4.4 billion dollars in damage, not including agricultural losses.

A week before the fires, an unprecedented heatwave hit Victoria. Record temperatures occurred (45.1 degrees Celsius/113.2 F on 30 January) during the heatwave. Conditions were remarkably dry as well as windy due to an approaching weather front. The fires started on a day when the highest temperatures since 1859 were recorded in Melbourne, the States capital. Victoria, like much of Australia at the time, had been in drought for an extended period. On the day before the fires the State Premier, John Brumby, issued a fire warning saying the following day would be the "worst day [of fire conditions] in the history of the state".

The next day saw winds of over 100 kilometres per hour coupled with extreme temperatures. Power-lines came down due to the winds. These extreme conditions meant that there was little firefighters could do to put out the fires. It is unknown what exactly started all of the fires, (lightening, felled power-lines or arson), but some of the fires were deliberately lit. A 39 year old man was arrested and charged with arson shortly after the fires.  His name was suppressed out of concern for his and his family's safety. He was not given bail and it was said that he was at risk from the other inmates in prison.  

A temporary morgue was set up in Melbourne with the State Coroner issuing a press release that it may be impossible to properly identify all of the human remains.  A Royal Commission identified issues with building codes, fire policy and the locations of various townships.

Victorian Bushfires Feb 2009

Lake Mountain toboggan run after 2009 Black Saturday bushfires.
Lake Mountain toboggan run after 2009 Black Saturday bushfires. | Source
Bushfires: Webster's Timeline History, 1822 - 2007
Bushfires: Webster's Timeline History, 1822 - 2007

Webster's bibliographic and event-based timelines are comprehensive in scope, covering virtually all topics, geographic locations and people. They do so from a linguistic point of view, and in the case of this book, the focus is on "Bushfires," including when used in literature (e.g. all authors that might have Bushfires in their name). As such, this book represents the largest compilation of timeline events associated with Bushfires when it is used in proper noun form.

 

Devastating Fires in the 20th Century

There have been many other reported fires in the 20th Century which have resulted in tragedy and devastation.

  • 1997 - Indonesia - Sumatra and Kalimantan Fires - 240 dead
  • 1983 - Australia - Ash Wednesday Fires - 75 dead
  • 1980 - Unites States - Needle Ridge Fires - 167 dead
  • 1967 - Australia - Tasmanian Bushfires - 62 dead
  • 1949 - France, Landes Fires - 230 dead
  • 1939 - Australia - Black Friday Bushfires - 71 dead
  • 1918 - United States - Cloquet Minnesota Fire - 453 dead
  • 1916 - Canada - Matheson Ontario Fire - 273 dead

Common Grave Site at Kursha-2

1936 Soviet Union Kursha-2 Fire

With 1,200 people dead, the Kursha-2 Fire is the deadliest in the 20th Century and beyond. Kursha-2 was a small community built shortly after the Russian Revolution in 1917 as a logging town. Located in the middle of European Russia, it was completely destroyed in a firestorm on 3 August 1936.

At the beginning of the conflagration an empty train arrived at the Kursha-2 depot. It was proposed that the townspeople be evacuated but the depot master had it loaded with wood instead. All of the townspeople perished, except 20 who managed to hide from the fire in a pond, wells, a channel and on an un-forested hill. Ironically, the train was also burnt with no survivors, so perhaps the depot master saved the 20 survivors with his lack of generosity.

The town was re-settled after WWII but the railway line was ultimately dismantled and today no one lives there except one elderly woman. The only reminder of the fire is a common grave near the former railway depot.

Burn: The Epic Story of Bushfire in Australia
Burn: The Epic Story of Bushfire in Australia

Drawing on accounts of devastating conflagrations in Australia’s recent history, this grand narrative of cataclysmic fires chronicles legendary acts of heroism, stupidity, political incompetence, and environmental vandalism Down Under. The Black Thursday fire of 1851, which destroyed one quarter of Victoria; the Black Friday fires of 1939, which incinerated thousands of hectares in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania; the Canberra inferno of 2003; and Black Saturday of February 2009 are some of the epic stories of bushfire recounted in this vivid and provocative exploration of the most fire-prone land on Earth.

 

Are Fires Getting Worse?

Fires have occurred through history, and like earthquakes and floods it is really hard to support the proposition that they are getting worse in intensity or frequency due to climate change or any other factors. The consensus of researchers is that while many contributors to the warming trend over the last 50 years can be identified as the result of human behaviour, the dryness in Australia over the last 12 years (a major factor in fire severity) may be due to natural variability. It is unknown if greenhouse gas buildup has resulted in more severe fires. However, the vast increases in population and development mean that when a conflagration happens, the damage and the death toll are likely to be worse than in the past. We are aware of more fires today than we were in the past because the media is able to use technology to keep people well informed.

Comments 7 comments

Larry Fields profile image

Larry Fields 5 years ago from Northern California

My understanding is that the Black Thursday Bushfire of 1851 was bigger. But fewer people were killed, because the population in Victoria's rural areas was considerably less than today's.

http://www.chig.asn.au/black_thursday_bushfires_18...


Mel Jay profile image

Mel Jay 5 years ago from Australia Author

Hi Larry, you are right about the size of the 1851 fires - fully 1/4 of Victoria went up in flames then, they were lucky only 12 people died! Unsurprisingly the 1851 fire was also preceded by a major drought. That seems to be the basis of the weather pattern when it comes to bushfires of that scale. Thanks for your comment - Mel


Cloverleaf profile image

Cloverleaf 5 years ago from Calgary, AB, Canada

Hi Mel, the photographs you have used are really quite incredible. Your hub is vivid and really strikes home, these fires were so devastating.


Mel Jay profile image

Mel Jay 5 years ago from Australia Author

Hi Cloverleaf, thanks for your comment. I think the Victorian fires affected most Australians, even if only peripherally. Those of us lucky enough not to have been directly affected were horrified by the stories and the fact that some of the fires were deliberately lit. We were concerned for family and friends and of course we all donated. What really upset me was not just that people that suffered and died, but all those animals that suffered. There was a lot of media attention devoted to a particular koala who got burnt. He was doing ok under treatment for a little while but then died. I could not cover it specifically in this hub as it was is far too upsetting. But even though we get so many horrible fires, floods, droughts and cyclones here I would never want to live anywhere else, except maybe Canada, which I thought was gorgeous, just a bit too cold for me! BTW loved your last hub, it is really good to read something happy after all these disasters! Cheers, Mel


Cloverleaf profile image

Cloverleaf 5 years ago from Calgary, AB, Canada

Hey Mel, that's so sad about the Koala, you are brave and show a lot of courage in writing these hubs about natural disasters, they can't be easy to write, but I commend you in how well written and informative they are. And thanks for your nice comment about my hub, that made me happy too :-)


Mel Jay profile image

Mel Jay 5 years ago from Australia Author

Hi Cloverleaf, thanks again for your support :) While the disaster research is gloomy, it is also encouraging in a funny way, as it makes the current spate of disasters seem a little less unusual and daunting. We just keep getting hit with floods and cyclones and fires here, but when I look at the historical context I see that Australia has always been hit with fires after a long drought, that the floods are related to other predictable weather events and the same with cyclones the whole thing makes a little more sense. Looking forward to reading your latest on hugs - Cheers Mel


amithak50 profile image

amithak50 4 years ago from India

Nice information,we have to get some recent Equipments to deal with the fire but Natural disaster can be very frustrating because every thing we have ..fails

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    Test your Fires Knowledge

    Sources

    • Wikipedia
    • John Pickrell, The Worst natural Disasters in Recent History", ABC Environment, 27 April 2011:http://www.abc.net.au/environment/articles/2011/04/27/3197103.htm
    • Natural Disasters in Australia, Australian Government, http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/natural-disasters
    • Q & A: Victorian bushfires, CSIRO, http://www.csiro.co.uk/resources/Victorian-Bushfires-QA.html#2
    • Emergency Management in Australia, Historical Disasters - Black Saturday Bushfires, http://www.ema.gov.au/www/emaweb/emaweb.nsf/Page/EMALibrary_OnlineResource_HistoricalDisasters_EmergencyManagementinAustralia-HistoricalDisasters-BlackSaturday
    • Kosmix, Kursha-2 images; http://www.kosmix.com/topic/kursha-2/Images
    • Natural Disasters killed 295,000 in 2010Sydney Morning Herald, January 4 2011, http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/natural-disasters-killed-295000-in-2010-20110104-19e06.html

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