Sur Empire - Sher Shah Suri Dynasty
Who is Sher Shah Suri
The dynasty - Sur Empire was founded by Sher Shah Suri. His original name was Farid. Started his career as the jagirdar of "Sasaram", Sher Shah joined the service of Bahar Khan Lohani of Bihar who conferred on him the title 'Sher Khan' for his courage in killing a tiger. Later he joined the service of Junaid Barlas (Babur's representative in the eastern region). Sher Shah persuaded Jalal Khan (ruler of Bengal) to render obedience to Babur (A.D.1529), as Babur restored his Jagirs. There he launched many administrative experiments. He attacked Bengal and conquered it in 1537.
Sher Shah defeated the Mughal forces in the battles at Chausa and Kanauj and seized the throne of Humayun (Babur's son) for himself in 1540. After suppressing the Gakkhars of Punjab, he built the fortress of Rohtas to control them. He split Bengal into small administrative units to ensure peace. He occupied Jodhpur and Ajmer in 1544 A.D. Next year he occupied Chitor and Amber, and died while besieging the fortress of Kaiinjar in 1545 A.D. He was buried at Sasaram. Sher Shah established a madarsa at Narnaul in Bihar. The dynasty by Sher Shah held control from the Kabul region in Afghanistan to Bangladesh in the east.
Rulers of Sur Dynasty
Sher Shah Suri
Firuz Shah Suri
Muhammad Adil Shah
Ibrahim Shah Suri
Sikandar Shah Suri
Adil Shah Suri
Sher Shah's Administrative Reforms
Administration: Sher Shah divided the empire into provinces. He experimented the usefulness of subdividing the provinces into regional administrative units by grouping some districts and appointed deputy governors. By making the local people responsible, he tremendously improved the law and order situation. By appointing two persons of equal rank at Paragana and Sarkar levels, he divided the executive functions and ensured the balance of power. He effected greater centralization by assuming the power of appointment and dismissal of Paragana and Sarkar officials. Dispensed justice well. Sujath Khan, Governor of Malwa was heavily punished for cheating soldiers, in making payment.
Revenue Administration: He classified the lands into three categories on the basis of their yield and assessed the land revenue on the basis of measurement of land. He drew up a schedule of rates to fix up land revenue in terms of cash. He issued 'Pattas' to the peasants and received 'Qabuliyats' from the latter. He established a famine relief fund and collected two and half seers per bigha from the peasants, for maintaining this relief fund.
Trade and Commerce: For improving them he built several new roads and restored the old ones (Got roads laid from Agra to Jodhpur and Chitor, Lahore to Multan and Agra to Burhampur and restored the old imperial road from river Indus to Sonargaon in Bengal. He built 'Sarais' along the roads for the traders to take rest. The sarais were also made use of as stages for the news service, carried with the aid of horses. He encouraged trade by standardising the coins of gold, silver, and copper, and introducing standard weights and measures. He collected the tolls only twice; once at the time of entering the country and next at the time of sales.
Military Administration: Maintained a large standing army of 1,50,000 cavalry, 25,000 infantry, 5,000 elephantry and artillery. He directly recruited the soldiers by dispensing with tribal levies. He maintained 'dagh' and 'Chahra' to keep his army efficient.
Contribution to Architecture: ensured the construction of a magnificent tomb at Sasaram in Bihar, sturdy fort at Rohtasgarh on Jhelum and Purana Quila at Delhi.
- The Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire in India. Why Mughals came to India? How Mughal Empire was established in India? Rulers of the great Mughal Empire. Glory of the Mughal Dynasty.
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