The American Military: A Look At It's Purpose

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, October 19, 1781, by which over 7,000 British and Hessians became prisoners. Copy of lithograph by James Baillie, circa 1845., 1931 - 1932
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, October 19, 1781, by which over 7,000 British and Hessians became prisoners. Copy of lithograph by James Baillie, circa 1845., 1931 - 1932 | Source

The American Military has to be considered an integral part of the entire concept of American society, regardless of whether we are peace or at war. From the beginning the roots of the military began with the citizen soldier, the “volunteer”, who was commanded by a leadership of highly trained and skilled senior officers. The military molded the society which it served and was indeed a reflection of that society. As the military evolved so did the society and culture it represented, and vice versa. The American military system has been developed to place a minimum burden on the people and give the nation a reasonable defense without sacrificing its fundamental values.

During the Revolutionary War, General George Washington knew his army had not enough trained officers and NCO’s with tactical proficiency to compete with the British. This left Washington with a conundrum to face – how to aggressively beat and remove the British while being forced to fight a strategically defensive fight. Washington clearly stated this position of the military when he said, “…that on our side the war should be defensive. It has even been called a war of posts. That we should on all occasions avoid a general action, or put anything to the risqué, unless compelled by a necessity, into which we ought never to be drawn.” This evolved into the military fighting a war of attrition, a strategy that would test the resolve of the leadership, the military and the colonists.

The conflicts that followed up until the American Civil War saw a mostly defensive struggle to the fledgling nation. Russell Weigley in his book ‘The American Way of War’ stated, “…the war did lead immediately to a clarification of the national military policy for deterrence of foreign attack and defense in case of attack.” The purpose of the military was clear – protect the nation. That is until the Civil War began.

The Civil War brought unique elements to the military. Defense was now not the sole purpose, but preservation of the new nation was. The enemy was not across the ocean, but right here, sometimes in the same town, sometimes in the same home. It also saw the rapid rise in technology and its use in warfare. The Civil War put Americans on the aggressive for the first time – unfortunately against each other. After the Civil War, America had now withstood the trials of becoming a nation and even though it struggled with reconciliation, the bonds that came after that war have since created a band of brothers that has become the premiere world power.

From the crest of Mount Suribachi, the Stars and Stripes wave in triumph over Iwo Jima after U.S. Marines had fought their way inch by inch up its steep lava-encrusted slopes., ca. 02/1945
From the crest of Mount Suribachi, the Stars and Stripes wave in triumph over Iwo Jima after U.S. Marines had fought their way inch by inch up its steep lava-encrusted slopes., ca. 02/1945 | Source

The nation however plunged itself into isolationism at the beginning of the 20th century. Thanks to Alfred Thayer Mahan, the navy was the sole focus during the time leading up to the Great War and strategy and tactics were greatly neglected. Even General John J. Pershing was of the mindset that national security was paramount. He disbanded the tank corps stating that “tanks had no role to play in continental defense.” By 1933 this led to Douglas MacArthur stating that the few tanks left were “completely useless for employment against any modern unit on the battlefield.” However, with the coming of World War Two and the following Cold War, the focus shifted from, according to Weigley, “the use of combats for the object of wars to the use of military force for the deterrence of war.”

Regardless of its position, the American military must occupy two planes of existence: the present and the future. Regardless of victory or defeat, without an understanding of the past and a proactive stance for the future, the military, of any country, is doomed to failure. According to Richard W. Stewart in ‘American History Vol. 1’, “the citizen and the soldier cannot know what path to follow unless they are aware of the breadth of alternatives that have been accepted or rejected in the past.” It should be noted that while the past represents a laboratory for the military strategist, the past must be interpreted in proper context and depth to prepare for the future. How today’s military fights has to be grounded on lessons learned from the past and awareness of what the future may hold.

The American military continues to this day to serve all the roles and purpose it has fulfilled since its birth during the Revolutionary War. These roles and purposes protect American lives, protect the lives of civilians all over the world, promote and herald freedom, provide leadership and promote international relations. The American military grows, evolves, adapts, leads and secures American culture and the concept of a free society. This purpose will never, and should never, change. The American soldier is the very foundation of the success and prosperity of American culture and society. The soldier is the embodiment of the purpose of the American military. And while he or she changes and adapts to the world around, their purpose remains steadfast and still provides to this day security, defense, leadership and prosperity for the American people and the world.

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ThunderKeys profile image

ThunderKeys 5 years ago

What an wonderful and educative Hub! Men and woman of the military are truly heroes and literally defenders of freedom an democracy, like no others in our society.

We have to pray that our leaders are successfully occupying that future plain of existence.

Gratefully,

- Duddy.


Alastar Packer profile image

Alastar Packer 5 years ago from North Carolina

Good Hub essay on the topic Nick. Is the Civil War considered the one with the most new innovations- first submarine sinking a warship, land mines, etc? I know theres a lot of them but can't think of too many at the moment. Thanks.


daryl2007 profile image

daryl2007 5 years ago


Old Empresario 5 years ago

You are a good writer. A lot of the topic of military doctrine is subjective, but I but need to offer a few humble corrections. "The conflicts that followed up until the American Civil War saw a mostly defensive struggle to the fledgling nation." It's true that we got into the War of 1812 ostensibly because the British were kidnapping our sailors. But after the war declaration, the strategic policy was to invade and conquer Canada. We failed at this, though we continued trying until the Brits were able to send enough forces to invade the US in 1814. There was nothing defensive about the Mexican War. We conquered Arizona, New Mexico, and California. The Seminole Wars were about conquering Florida from Spain and then exterminating the native population. The Northwest Indian War was executed to clear the way for land speculators in Ohio. The militia was the state-controlled mainstay of the early military that Jefferson wanted. They fought badly, but the units were made up of the citizenry. The early regular army was better trained, but was made up immigrants and the dregs of poor society. The role of the professional army was mostly to secure the frontier, build forts and roads, and to serve as a seasoned corps supported by militia during Indian wars. The major US wars (Mexico, Civil War, Spanish American) were fought by a type of soldier that split the difference between standing regular army and the militia. These were called "Volunteers". Volunteers did the bulk of the fighting in the major wars. Even WWI and WWII exercised the volunteer concept through conscription. The soldiers were well-trained, yet were not part of a militaristic sub-culture that lived apart from society. This whole concept was dropped during the Vietnam War when citizen-soldiers no longer wanted to fight overseas imperial wars.


ib radmasters profile image

ib radmasters 4 years ago from Southern California

The American Military was no where to be found on 911.

NORAD fizzled out, and the FAA was in charge too long. The President was conveniently out of town, and took too long to control the situation.

Scheduling war games on 911 was a big failure, as most of the military was in game mode.

Andrews Air Force Base couldn't even protect Washington DC. The military needs to be ready 24/7 fully armed and ready to go. Just like they used to do when the cold war existed.

The fault was not that of the military but of the politicians that run the military.

WWII the politicians wanted Eisenhower and the British, instead of MacArthur and Patton. The Revolutionary War was the Only War that America has won. WW were politically neutralized. Korea was a draw, Vietnam was a Loss. Desert Storm didn't finish the job. Iraq and Afghanistan you tell me.

Thanks for your service.

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