Taxonomy, the Scientific Classification of All Life, Simply Explained

Showing the taxonomic classification of Fido, a dog.
Showing the taxonomic classification of Fido, a dog.

And of all life, past and present.

The Taxonomic Classification of Man.

And all the life-forms we have ever known.

1) Kingdom   4) Order  7) Species

 2) Phylum     5) Family

  3) Class        6) Genus

Most of you bright and informed Hubbers will know that Taxonomy has little to do with governments stealing our hard earned shekels, but describes a system of classifying the myriads of creatures who have come and gone, or still inhabit, our planet.

Taxonomy has been made extremely complicated by the addition of many layers and sub-layers of classification, used by scientists, which have muddied the waters of the clear system invented by the Swedish botanist, Carl Von Linne (Ltn. Linnaeus), way back in the Eighteenth Century. No doubt they could give us good reasons for what they have done, but his has put the assimilation of taxonomy beyond the layman and into the realm of the expert only, perhaps the situation the scientific community was seeking.

I will seek in this short article to clarify some of the mystery and explain just what the whole process involves, with the emphasis on our own classification and using just the traditional methods without all the extra “layers” found indispensable by today’s scientists. (They are mentioned in lowercase).

Kingdom

. First, come the Kingdom. You, your dog and cat and all the other diverse animals all belong to the Animal Kingdom, (Animalia), containing billions upon billions of life forms stretching back more than 500 million years right up to today, 2010. Other kingdoms are the Plants, Fungi, Protozoa and Bacteria. Most of what we know about extinct life we have gleaned from the fossil record and much more must be lost, probably forever, unless we can one day invent a real world Tardis and go back to the beginning of time - of life - and have a look.

Here, the boffins have injected a sub-kingdom, but we will pass on to the next stage in our consideration today:

Phylum

. In general terms, the phyla are a group of creatures which show a certain degree of development. Our phylum is “Chordata, which contain all vertebrates (having a spinal column), as well as a couple of anomalies, such as the lamprey, a strange sucker fish.

There are 36 phyla, nine of which include 96% of all life. Two of these, the Mollusca (shellfish) and the Arthropoda (insects, arachnids, etc) are the two largest grouping.

The brainiacs have put in two more subclasses here, the sub-phylum and the super-class, but we shall descend abruptly, leaving them to mutter, to the:

Class

. Here, we find the ranks further divided into characteristics which separate them from the general pyhla for that species. For example, man’s phylum, Chordata, is broken down into birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals (and several others). Then there are reptilia, aves (birds) amphibia and agantha (fish, etc.)

Here, we skip no less than three other sub-chapters dear to the eggheads: sub-class, infra-class and super-order, and journey comfortably to:

Order.

Here, we break down the larger classes into smaller groups, mammalia includes mice, rats, etc., etc., primates include old and new world primates, as well as you and me, the “super apes“ who we shall concentrate on from now. Also here are the carnivora, rodentea, marsupial, catacea (whales, etc.) and a dozen more,

Jumping again the complicating suborder, infra-order and super- family, we land on the next taxonomic grouping concerned in this hub:

Family.

This is the level most understood by laymen as it is the one where man appears clearly, although we are still hanging with our brothers, the primates, in the family Hominidae. Others include Pongidae (Orang-utans), Cebidae (monkeys) and about 8 more.

Nearly home now, as we jump down to:

Genus

. Ignoring sub-family and tribe, we separate from other apes, etc., here, becoming Homo , Pan, (Chimps), Gorilla, (merely Gorilla…one tore the head off an anthropologists attempting to call his genus Kong!). The last member of this grouping is Australopithecine (man) now extinct of course.

From here, we go down to the last taxa used to classify life: Species. Preceded by sub-genus and followed by sub-species; in the later additional classifications, the last probably included in the anticipation of football hooligans and other worthy sociopaths.

The Species, as far as man is concerned, includes Neanderthal Man, Erectus, Habiles and man as we know him today, Homo sapiens, or the “man who thinks“, (he appeared briefly in the taxonomic record 400,000 years ago, but I guess conditions were not quite right).

Please excuse this article as that in striving for simplicity, I have missed out much of what can be seen in any scientific article or journal.

Notes:

For those who would like to know all the classifications used today (with more contemplated) here we go:

Kingdom, Subkingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Superclass, Class, Subclass, Infraclass, Superorder, Order, Suborder, Infraorder, Superfamily, Family, Subfamily, Tribe, Genus, Subgenus, Species, Subspecies. Perhaps they did it to create more niches for their boffins!

 

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Comments 10 comments

Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 6 years ago from London, UK

I am glad you wrote it in a simplier form. Thank you for a lot of information.


diogenes profile image

diogenes 6 years ago from UK and Mexico Author

I waan't too happy with this article...a bit boring. Thanks HH Bob


cathylynn99 profile image

cathylynn99 6 years ago from northeastern US

not boring to me, a biology major. maybe a little desultory. To those interested in the evolution of man, I recommend Desmond Morris's "The Naked Ape".


diogenes profile image

diogenes 6 years ago from UK and Mexico Author

A great book, read it years ago: we are only playing at academic publishng in hubpages...Bob


Abisagbo iyunola 4 years ago

why is it that u don't start with domain?


diogenes profile image

diogenes 4 years ago from UK and Mexico Author

Well: I should have started with "Life," really, then Domain, but these classifications have little use except in a very general sense.

You are partly right, though, thanks.

Bob


DJ SIMXY 2 years ago

Good work, nice biological info and great knowledge passed. *thumbs up*


Sam wahito 19 months ago

Not bad .thanks for the info anyway.


J Nosreves 18 months ago

The taxonomy listed at the top of this page for "man" is actually the taxonomy for a dog.


diogenes profile image

diogenes 18 months ago from UK and Mexico Author

Yes...Of course, the title didn't refer to the opening list of classification; but it is confusing and I'm grateful for you in showcasing that and I will change the title.

Bob "Woof, woof!"

ps It did say it was for a dog underneath..."Fido," in small print

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