Why Are All Ugly People Evil?

The Fall of the Rebel Angels

Behold the above painting!Pieter Bruegel the Elder represents the Biblical fall of the rebel angels with a binary physiognomy. The mythological tale is that some angels rebelled against God--either out of envy or drive for greater power--and were cast down to Hell by God's loyal forces. The theological analysis is that the fallen angels were given the ultimate freedom of choosing God or not-God, good or evil. In the painting we see the evil angels clearly marked out by their grotesque shapes, the deformity of their bodies. They are ugly, even hideous. One imagines the uglier, the more evil they be. The good angels, Michael in his golden armour and fellow angels in flowing light robes, are the epitome of Renaissance beauty. They are fair-skinned with long hair, their bodies thin and delicate, their faces handsome and androgynous. It is not that the fallen angels were ugly from the get-go, but that their falling twisted their 'bodies' into vile forms. A physiognomy follows from the relationship between beauty and moral state: the capacity to judge the moral state from the appearance.

Richard III

But I, that am not shaped for sportive tricks
Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass;
I, that am rudely stamped, and want love's majesty
To strut before a wanton ambling nymph;
I, that am curtailed of this fair proportion,
Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,
Deformed, unfinished, sent before my time
Into this breathing world scarce half made up,
And that so lamely and unfashionable
That dogs bark at me as I halt by them -
Why I, in this weak piping time of peace,
Have no delight to pass away the time,
Unless to spy my shadow in the sun
And descant on mine own deformity.
And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover
To entertain these fair well-spoken days,
I am determined to prove a villain
...

In Richard III, Shakespeare conforms to the false view of Richard III concocted by Holinshed and other historians that Richard was deformed, a hunchback. Shakespeare has Richard go through his ugliness like a litany. Performances of Richard III have emphasized this trait, with Antony Sher adopting long, black, two-pronged sticks with which to scuttle about the stage like an insect--reminding one of the famous opening lines of Kafka's Metamorphosis, "Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams to find he had been turned into a gigantic insect." As Kafka's insect is despised by characters within the story, the mere appearance of Richard III in Sher's performance is intended to repulse the audience. His appearance is enough to decide he is somehow unwholesome, dangerous.

The normal-looking Richard III
The normal-looking Richard III

In fact Richard III's deformity was an invention of political opposition to his reign. Shakespeare used the notion for dramatic reasons. One of which is apparently a causal link between being ugly and being evil, "And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover...I am determined to prove a villain..." Although Richard's soliloquy is hardly reliable, Shakespeare has him draw a link between his own inability to find love as an ugly man and his decision to be a villain. Richard III's villainy, of course, involves his taking the throne by scheming and murdering; one wonders if sexual frustration is sufficient, if the relationship between his ugliness and his evil is more metaphysical. On the other hand, Richard twice attempts a seduction in the course of the play, succeeding once, suggesting that perhaps Richard's frustrations are sexual and that there is a relationship between the drive to power, the drive to sex and beauty.

Caravaggio's Head of Medusa
Caravaggio's Head of Medusa

Medusa

The relationship between good and evil in Richard III is not unlike the relationship between salvation and action in Protestant theology. To Catholics, and as imagined by non-Christians, the Christian prepares him/her self for salvation through good works based in faith. In Protestant theology, however, one is already either saved or not saved; good actions are merely the result of being determined as saved, a symbol by which one can tell who is saved. Similarly, Richard III's doesn't cause him to be evil, it is rather a symbolic representation of his evil nature. This notion develops from Plato onward. Plato introduced the concept of an internal disorder: the appetites, anger and reason can lose their delicate balance. The Judeo-Christian philosophers adopted Plato's thought and applied to it their characteristic analogical mode of thought, whereby the four seasons correspond to the four elements, the four personality types, the four substances of the body, and so forth. Analogically, a disordered soul and a disordered body become linked in the poetic imagination.

This, however, is once the full Christianization of Europe has been more or less achieved. The Greek myths, predating Plato, show a different vision, but no less potent one. Medusa, the beautiful Gorgon who, albeit vain, is hardly evil, is raped in the Temple of Athena. Athena is offended and issues a punishment to the Gorgon: she is to be so incredibly ugly that she turns to stone all who look upon her. In Medusa, the ugliness itself is the evil: they are truly one, and not symbolic one of the other. The evil is thus entirely on the surface and by no means morally implicates Medusa. Quite the opposite, Medusa appears to be a true victim. It is only with Italian peplum films that Medusa become a vicious monster desirous of turning warriors to stone.

What is of significance about Medusa, however, is that her ugliness is taken the be sufficient justification for her death. The hero Perseus is sent to take her head, which he dutifully does with some help from none other than Athena. Perseus is represented in traditional fashion as a hero slaying the monster. Never is Perseus represented as a villain or at least misguided character sent to perform an immoral task. Although it is true Medusa has turned some into stone, the problem can be ended simply by avoiding Medusa. The evil is an accidental and not an essential condition; it rests on the surface, like color. However, there is a refusal to separate Medusa from the harm caused by her ugliness. There is no remorse for Medusa because she is ugly. She is represented as a monster deserving of slaying; and she is so represented because she is so very ugly.

The Devil Effect

So we find throughout history that the attitude toward ugliness as evil has not vanished but only mutated and taken on subtler forms. Ugliness was once taken to be evil itself, a form of evil afflicting the one who has it like a disease. The ugly one was a victim or host of the evil. Come the Renaissance, the ugliness itself was no longer evil, but a symbolic manifestation of internal, hidden evil. The attitude has still not vanished today, but has mutated still to fit the times.

In 1972 a study was conducted by Dion, Berscheid & Walster on the relationship between perception of beauty and judgments on character. Photos were given to participants who were asked to rate the attractiveness of those in the photo and to rate the personality traits of the person based on the photo. It was found that those consistently rated attractive were also taken to have the most desirable personality traits. In 1975 a study by Zanna & Peck found that women are inclined to alter their opinions to fit those of an attractive man, but do not alter their opinions for unattractive men. The study concluded that the women unconsciously associated attractiveness with intelligence and wisdom, even superior to their own. What is at play in both of these studies is a conjunction of a beautiful-is-good stereotype and a cognitive bias called the "halo effect," in which the good of one trait is conceptually extended to other traits. The trait of beauty, being stereotyped as representing good, spreads out over the other traits of the beautiful person. The opposite of the halo effect is, naturally, the devil effect, in which the one negative trait, ugliness in this case, is extended over other traits.

Returning to the actual devils, in The Fall of the Rebel Angels one sees the ugly forms representing the evil interior of the fallen angels. With the devil effect, however, this attitude mutates into a yet subtler form. Now the relationship between ugliness and evil is situated within the realm of social interaction as a heuristic cognitive bias. It is not that the ugly person contains a disordered soul or that the evil ugliness has been thrust upon him or her, but rather the ugliness of the person, a very immediate trait, becomes the dominant trait from which the whole person is judged as 'evil'. The evil is a product of imputing rather than an actual property or at least a property acquired via the expectation of the imputing. Nevertheless, the effect is the same and just as real; this is the same attitude in a new guise.

Beauty, Sex and Power

The beauty one sees in another person is not the same as the beauty of a sunset or the beauty of an artwork. One appreciates the sunset and the artwork in a peaceful mode, free of anxiety. The appreciation of human beauty is anxiety-ridden and coupled with primal desire, an organic impulse towards possession: one wants to cuddle the beautiful child, to captivate the beautiful potential mate, to resist desiring the non-potential mate. The beautiful thus have an erotic power, like the beautiful good angels dominating the ugly fallen angels in The Fall of the Rebel Angels.

Richard III's response to the domination of the beautiful is to strive for absolute power with a modus operandi he terms 'villainy'. Coming increasingly closer to power, he attempts seduction. His response to a lack of power to possess the beautiful is to substitute for beauty political power and to use political power the obtain the objects of erotic desire. The ugly are moved to strive for power as substitute for erotic power and striving for power is often a movement against others, whereas beauty is always effortless and for others. Yet, though beauty is for others, it is held over others and masters; similarly, though striving is against others, it can be opened before others and serve. There is nothing inherently evil in power, but only in the methods by which a Richard III pursues it. This method is a perversity and not a necessity.

Narcissus admires Narcissus
Narcissus admires Narcissus

The beautiful angels in their androgynous glory Narcissus-like gaze upon their own good selves and desire nothing else, while the rebel angels are cast into the abyss in twisted forms against their will. But the evil was their will. Cast into this world in forms not nearly as plastic as we wish, our wills have nearly infinite plasticity and it is the will that is the locus of evil. And Medusa against her will is made both ugly and evil in one fell punishment, god-deprived of the will to anything else. If perhaps the eye of Pieter Bruegel were shared by the masses, the twisted forms might be revealed in the disharmony of the will and not the will surmised from the flesh.

And yet, we look forward not to salvation, but the next mutation of the bias.

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Comments 14 comments

pgrundy 7 years ago

Wasn't Lucifer beautiful and bright? (Both literally and figuratively?) This is a very complex essay, one I will be thinking about for awhile. While we have a bias toward the ugly and attribute evil to them, aren't beautiful people exceptionally capable of casual cruelty and don't they often possess an easy sense of entitlement that is horrifying in many respects? The lack of that easy sense of entitlement is often what drives the ugly to the perversions of power, but the perversions are hoarded by the beautiful with little outside criticism. Maybe this is what you are saying. It's exciting to have this kind of essay here at HP. I have to go walk my dog now--I hope I don't run into things contemplating all these big ideas. I run into things without any help already.


Arthur Windermere profile image

Arthur Windermere 7 years ago Author

Hi pgrundy! Thanks so much for your kind comments.

You're right, Lucifer was supposed to be the most beautiful of all the angels--until he took a walk on the wild side. Then we get the serpent and other grotesque representations of him.

I certainly don't agree with the bias, but it is pervasive in the history of literature and art. And like you say, there's just as much possibility, maybe even greater temptation, to some vices for the beautiful.

Although I end on a pessimistic note in the hub, the internet does seem to offer a solution. It is often the case that we encounter someone's personality before appearance while online. Sometimes it is even the opposite: we imagine someone is gorgeous because s/he's so nice to chat with online.

Good luck not running into inanimate objects! hehehe


CMHypno profile image

CMHypno 7 years ago from Other Side of the Sun

I think it is important to remember that the play Richard III was written by Shakespeare who depended on a Tudor monarch for his livelihood. It would not have gone down well with the Tudor propoganda machine to have portrayed Richard as an ordinary/maybe good looking person with no physical deformities. Outer beauty is genetic, inner beauty is what counts :)


Arthur Windermere profile image

Arthur Windermere 7 years ago Author

Thanks for your comment, CMHypno. Yes, of course, the Tudor machine had power steering and anti-lock brakes, too, after all. But seriously, good point. And you're right on.

Cheers!


the pink umbrella profile image

the pink umbrella 6 years ago from the darkened forest deep within me.

I think that evil people are portrayed as ugly people because it helps with making others dislike them more. However, ive seen pictures of mother teresa, and she wasn't really a looker. It might also be that all that horrible evil rots you from the inside out, making you maybe not as attractive as you were before the shaddow crept across your soul. Ever notice how its easier to criticise a jerk? Ive known plenty of overweight people in my life that have been so sweet and just generally really good people. For some reason when anyone ever commented on their weight, i could never bring myself to agree that they were "fat." But if a slightly chunky woman cuts me off in traffic..."fat bit*h." Weird, i know.


Arthur Windermere profile image

Arthur Windermere 6 years ago Author

Hey Pinkie,

Sure, in real life there's no correlation between appearance and moral capacity. Yet strangely that's the case in the arts.

Maybe this is getting a bit heady, but if you go back to the Neoplatonists, they linked all positive attributes like Good, Beauty, Unity, Wisdom as forming their God. So anything good must be beautiful and anything evil must be ugly.

Some psychological studies claim to have found unattractive people can develop moral weaknesses due to not being as accepted into society.

And I think you make a good point. We do notice more flaws in jerks. The same is also the cause of allegedly racist statements. Often what's taken the be racism is really just meant to be hurtful and targets something that may be sensitive.

Cheers!


the pink umbrella profile image

the pink umbrella 6 years ago from the darkened forest deep within me.

I totally agree. I think people are more likely to use the n word if an african american cuts them off in traffic (although i think that word is hideous). Just as if an over weight person is moving too slow, your more likely to mumble "lets go fat a**." i do it with old people. Everytime i get stuck behind some old guy with his blinker on moving the speed of snail i always say "happy 105th birthday!" Its not nice, but we all tend to want to hit people that effect us where it hurts.


nighthag profile image

nighthag 6 years ago from Australia

I found this to be really thought provoking, nicely written thanks


Arthur Windermere profile image

Arthur Windermere 6 years ago Author

Hey nighthag,

Thanks for saying so. This was one of my first hubs. A little too serious, I think. I hadn't found my voice yet.

Cheers!


McHamlet profile image

McHamlet 5 years ago

I like the George Orwell quote that at fifty everyone has the face they deserve. I'm also reminded of Oscar Wilde's take on the issue in 'The picture of Dorian Gray'. I tend to think myself that being too beautiful on the outside very often leads to moral degeneracy because the beautiful often get a 'free ride' from others overly impressed with their looks. Not that being very ugly would necessarily make you a better person but it would probably make you more thoughtful at least.

There is in modern society, I think, a tyranny of beauty fed by the media that's destructive to a deeper and more important human beauty which can only be encapsulated in action. And it's very hard to escape. We can look at a rose and immediately see it as superior to a weed. Similarly, it's not too hard to appreciate great music and art in comparison to its opposite (for most people) but when judging others, though aesthetics won't really get us very far (unless they're fifty and up')) the beautiful is generally held up as the good in popular culture.

Incidentally, in Thai, the word 'ugly' is literally translated as 'hate-face' but the Thais, in my experience, seem to almost always use it to refer to actions rather than looks...

Anyway, interesting and well written hub Arthur') Cheers.


Robert Fripp 4 years ago

Arthur Windermere asks: Why Are All Ugly People Evil?

The word "all" in your title is surely an over-reaching generality. Still, let me discuss the concept you propose.

More than five hundred years after King Richard III’s death, the image of him that most people imagine is the "ugly" misshapen psychopath dreamed up by Shakespeare. The Bard launched his vicious character assassination in “The Tragedy of Richard III” (1591), one of the very first plays from a novice playwright which served up valuable propaganda for the uneasy House of Tudor -- and established Shakespeare's reputation as a reliable propagandist.

Queen Elizabeth was past bearing children by then, unmarried, and without an heir. Where would her ministers look for a suitable candidate? Would her people look back, to the previous ruling House of Plantagenet? For over a century Tudor monarchs had wished to distance themselves from the Plantagenets who came before them. The last Plantagenet king, Richard III, was a convenient scapegoat to smear.

In the 1940s the actor Laurence Olivier added a severe, Quasimodo-style disfigurement to the theatrical character of an already damaged king. A decade later, in 1955, Olivier transferred his crippled persona from stage to screen and his ghoulish invention took on a permanence that has endured for more than sixty years. Fine actors who ought to know better continue to turn themselves into cartoons of this unflattering creature, as they creep or limp across world stages.

??Where did this disfigurement originate? Shakespeare borrowed it to great effect: Early in Scene 1 he has the king describe himself as: “Deformed, unfinish'd, sent before my time / Into this breathing world, scarce half made up, / And that so lamely and unfashionable / That dogs bark at me as I halt by them…”??

But Shakespeare was not the first to invent or invest in a damaged Richard III. Sir Thomas More had described the king in unflattering terms decades earlier, circa 1514, during the reign of Ruling Tudor Number Two, Henry VIII. Sir Thomas, an astute politician and a careful courtier, was also a man of deeply conservative religious views. It therefore suited More to apply to Richard's person the biblical metaphor that physical deformity was a heaven-sent affliction to punish sins of character. In the Christian era this notion goes back at least to Boethius (d. 525). In the Bible it appears in Leviticus 21.17-24, and thence carries forward to Psalm 51.5 (A.V.). The Tudor chronicler Raphael Hollinshed borrowed his “Richard” image from More, and Shakespeare sculpted that image further, from Hollinshed.?

That is how many scraps of ill-met scholarship found their well-chewed way into Shakespeare. In Paul Murray Kendall’s authoritative biography, “Richard the Third” (1975), the author describes Shakespeare’s play, “The Tragedy of Richard III” thus: “What a tribute this is to art; what a misfortune this is for history.”

And that is why I spent four years writing a better play about the times of Richard III, and doing it in Shakespeare's English. "Dark Sovereign" is intended as a direct attack on the Bard's interpretation. Search for [Robert Fripp Richard III] or [Robert Fripp Shakespeare] and you will discover much more about "Dark Sovereign". Alternatively, Search for "A Man In His Mirrors : Schizoid Projections of Richard III." All sorts of things may jump out at you.

Robert Fripp,

Author, "Dark Sovereign"

http://robertfripp.ca?


JeanaMJeffers3 profile image

JeanaMJeffers3 3 years ago from Indianapolis, IN 46268

Okay! I just want to say that your journalism is awesome. I like reading something that I can't put down. I also was educated about Medusa all the stories I ever heard about the mythical woman was that she had snake hair. I need to go back and read the Narcissus info to get your complete picture. But what I hear is that though we may be beautiful on the outside the story of our inside can recite an ugly photo.


Sanxuary 2 years ago

There are plenty of beautiful people considered evil. Even more nostalgic is how popularity determines what is beautiful, sometimes ugly is the latest fad. Tattoo's, body piercing and some cultures beautiful can be something quite different. How many people thought Hitler was the sexiest guy, he is pretty ugly these day right? How many ugly guys with lots of money some how seem to be attractive to darn good looking women. Ever meet a really good looking woman with such a crappy personality that she becomes ugly? Looks are all in the eyes of the beholder. Ever make someone look good, that can be done to.


17 months ago

Just think, none of this would be true if our species didn't rely so heavily on sight.

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