The Third Crusade

THE FINAL RESTING PLACE OF ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE
THE FINAL RESTING PLACE OF ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE
KING HENRY II OF ENGLAND
KING HENRY II OF ENGLAND

ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) may be the most remarkable personality of the Twelfth Century, and Aquitaine itself, may have been Europe's most brilliant civilization. Eleanor of Aquitaine accompanied her husband, Louis VII of France, on the Second Crusade along with her own company of Amazonian female troops dressed in white tunics, slit up the side; wearing knee-high red leather boots with orange linings. She claimed that both she and her women were accompanying the Crusaders in order to help care for the wounded, but the women’s presence proved to be a distraction. Some said her presence is what doomed the venture to failure.

Eleanor was married to two kings and bore two more. First husband, Louie VII of France, divorced her after his subjects blamed her for the failure of the Second Crusade. Their marriage to was annulled on the basis of “consanguinity.” Louis was pious; she was not, and her behavior on the crusade was less than impeccable.

She then, at the age of thirty, married the 19-year old, King of England, Henry II. Eleanor was the mother of King Richard the Lionheart and his brother, the bad King John. Enraged over Henry's infidelities, she moved back to her native Aquitaine and established Poitiers as the center for culture in Europe.

Although Eleanor originally retired to Poitiers as an attempt at a trial separation, she soon found herself in a much different situation. In 1173, she led a rebellion with her three sons against Henry, after which he had her imprisoned in various fortresses for the next 15 years. She had the complete love and respect of her son Richard, and John was for better words “terrified” of her. After Henry’s death she had a large role in ruling England during Richard’s absence, and she counseled John during his own reign.



HENRY II OF ENGLAND

Henry II (1133-1189) may have been the greatest English King ever.  He founded the House of Plantagenet that ruled for over 300 years, instituted English Common Law, and created the first bureaucracy in the country to administrate his affairs.  He surely united England as never before.

THE SPOT WHERE THOMAS BECKET WAS MURDERED
THE SPOT WHERE THOMAS BECKET WAS MURDERED
THOMAS BECKET
THOMAS BECKET
THE MURDER OF THOMAS BECKET
THE MURDER OF THOMAS BECKET

WALDENSIANS

A new sect of Christians emerged in the Twelfth Century known as the Waldensians. They rejected Catholicism and declared the Bible their only rule. In particular, they rejected Catholic Mass and prayers to or for the dead. The Waldensians were the forerunners of the Protestants.

THOMAS BECKET

Archbishop Thomas Becket (b. 1118) was murdered on the afternoon of December 29, 1170, inside of the most holy place in the country of England, the Canterbury Cathedral. Ironically, the assassins were the men of his best friend and sovereign, King Henry II.

Before becoming Archbishop, Becket served as Chancellor of England. He proved to be an outstanding administrator, an excellent military commander, and the king's most loyal servant. King Henry II and Thomas Becket hunted and drank together regularly. In 1162, King Henry II named Becket the Archbishop of England—apparently believing Becket would continue to do his bidding.

Instead, Becket cut back on the expenditures of church funds that were used by the crown for lavish entertainments saying, "I am not the man I was when I was chancellor." In other words, he not only took his new position as a man of God seriously, but placed his own duties and responsibilities to the church above the interests of his friend and King. "I have gone from being a patron of play actors and a follower of hounds to a shepherd of souls."

One day, King Henry II said in the presence of his closest men that he wished Becket would disappear. Upon hearing this, the four knights made their way to Canterbury Cathedral and killed Becket; they believed themselves to be doing the king a favor. Becket’s murder traumatized not only England, all of Europe as well. King Henry II sobbed when he was told of Becket's death and went into seclusion. He fasted, and allowed himself to be scourged in public as penance.

Becket's tomb became the most famous in Europe and his story was immortalized in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. His bones were destroyed by King Henry VIII in 1538.

SALADIN
SALADIN
KING RICHARD THE LIONHEART TAKES ON SALADIN
KING RICHARD THE LIONHEART TAKES ON SALADIN
RELIQUARY OF THE TRUE CROSS IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE IN JERUSALEM
RELIQUARY OF THE TRUE CROSS IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE IN JERUSALEM

SALADIN

Saladin (died 1193) was a Muslim Kurd, who would prove to be the pivotal figure of the Crusades. He was handsome and charming; he ate only fruit, drank only water, lived in a small house, and slept on a simple mat.

In 1187, Saladin assembled an army of 30,000 warriors, including 12,000 cavalry, at the Sea of Galilee. He first struck the Christian city of Tiberias. The Christians living in the Holy Land were able to muster 20,000 men, but only 1,200 of these men were actually soldiers. They were led by King Guy, who carried with him the True Cross. The battle took place where Jesus gave the Sermon on the Mount, and nearly all of the Christians were butchered. Survivors were castrated and used as sex slaves for those Muslims with homosexual proclivities.

According to the Golden Legend, a medieval best-seller written in 1260, the True Cross was from a seed of the Tree of Life from the Garden of Eden. Adam died with the seed in his mouth and provided the fertilizer for the tree, which then grew in the place where Adam was buried. This tree was used millennia later for the crucifixion of Jesus.

St. Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, discovered the True Cross—on the spot where now sits the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The cross was on display in Jerusalem until it was seized by the Persian Emperor Khousrau II in 614. Thirteen years later, Christian Emperor Heraclius marched into Persia to get it back—and he did. It was hidden in Jerusalem for 470 years by the Christians living there; Christians aware that the Muslims were steadily seeking it so as to destroy it. It was revealed to the First Crusaders after they reconquered Jerusalem in 1099, and it remained on display there for pilgrims until King Guy carried it into the battle against Saladin in 1187. The battle was lost, and Saladin took the True Cross to Damascus. Several Christian emperors tried to buy it back but were refused. Saladin knew this sacred object was priceless to Christians, and therefore refused any ransom for it. This contributed to the ill feelings that Christians harbored toward Muslims for centuries. The True Cross was never seen again.

Saladin led his Muslim army south and conquered Jerusalem for Islam. Saladin was an honorable victor, in this case. After his victory in Jerusalem he did not permit looting or the killing of civilians, he also promised free access to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christian pilgrims. He did have his guards killed when he became suspicious of the, and was known to have the unruly hanged. Saladin was a tremendous military commander.

Upon hearing that Jerusalem had once again fallen, the pope died of shock.

ASSASSINS

The word "assassin" comes from an Arabic word Hashshashin, which means "smoker of much hashish." This was a cult of Shiite Muslim hit men that began in the Twelfth Century. Their true aim was Islamic Revolution but they were mostly known for the murder of the famous with daggers in public—in broad daylight—to terrorize rulers and the populace. The Shiites bridled under the rule of the dominant Sunni Muslims. They claimed they were clearing a path for a messiah-like figure to come, the Hidden Imam. Their founder, Hassan ibn al-Sabah, assured them of a martyr's paradise as a reward for these assassinations. There were perhaps 40,000 Hashshashin in the 1100s, and they were known as the fedayeen (the faithful).

FREDERICK BARBAROSSA
FREDERICK BARBAROSSA
POPE ADRIAN IV
POPE ADRIAN IV

FREDERICK BARBAROSSA

Frederick I (1122-1190), Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, known as Barbarossa because of his red beard, became one of the most revered figures in European history. He participated in the ill-fated Second Crusade as a 21-year-old, but was repelled by the behavior of his fellow Crusaders. Those behaviors included robbing villagers in Hungary, and regularly fighting amongst themselves. They rioted, rebelled, and deserted.

Barbarossa was crowned emperor in 1152, at Aachen by the only English Pope in history, Adrian IV; he was crowned on the throne of Charlemagne. Four years later, he split Bavaria to create a new state called Austria (East Land).

In 1166 Barbarossa fell from his place at the top of the world into complete destitution. A strange disease befell his army after they had conquered Italy, including the Vatican. An unusual rain came to Rome that lasted for weeks without ceasing; the sewage system failed; massive flooding then ensued, ruining the food supply and polluting the drinking water. His army revolted and Barbarossa fled north with only his wife and the clothes on their backs. He concluded that God had punished him for making war against other Christians—in particular for interfering with the affairs of the Church in Rome. The experience transformed him.

Barbarossa was determined to lead a Third Crusade to atone for the shameful defeat of the Second Crusaders. He declared that this time every Crusader must be a wholly committed Christian. No thieves, beggars, crooks, or prostitutes would be allowed amongst the crusaders; looting and pillaging would be severely punished; and if anyone harassed a Jew, he would lose a hand and be sent home. Unfortunately for the Crusaders, Barbarossa died of a heart attack while crossing an icy river in Turkey on his way to the Holy Land with his army. The Muslims—who greatly feared Barbarossa—saw this as a sign from Allah that He was with them.

RICHARD THE LIONHEART
RICHARD THE LIONHEART
THE THIRD CRUSADE ENGRAVING BY GUSTAVE DORE
THE THIRD CRUSADE ENGRAVING BY GUSTAVE DORE
THE THIRD CRUSADE
THE THIRD CRUSADE

THE THIRD CRUSADE

Europeans had a hard time coming to grips with why God would allow them to lose to the Muslims in the Second Crusade. Archbishop Josias of Tyre provided the explanation: God was disgusted with the sinful lifestyles that had taken hold of the Christians in the Holy Land after the generation of the First Crusade had passed. "How many and how great are the calamities that our sins require. The anger of God has lately permitted us to be whipped." The Christians of the Holy Land had become a wealthy but depraved society filled with lazy, lustful, carnal, murderous, adulterous crooks that no longer attended church. Muslim writer 'imad al-Din agreed, describing Christian women as "proud and scornful, foul-fleshed and sinful, ardent and inflamed, tinted and painted, desirable and appetizing, exquisite and graceful, seductive and bullying, with shapely buttocks. Broken down little fools who are ravished and debased by Arab men."

The Third Crusade was the largest of them all—200,000 men with 50,000 horses. The three leaders were Frederick Barbarossa; King Philip of France; and King Richard the Lionheart of England. When Frederick died along the way, the Germans—half of the Crusader Army—went home.

King Richard the Lionheart and King Philip were close friends but very different men. Philip was not an attractive leader; he was not charming or daring. He was quiet, and had no interest in appearing well groomed. Even the hunt held no interest for him. He was a famous prude, and had even banned foul language in his kingdom; penalties were both in place and enforced for offenders of this law. To Philip, his friend Richard was a rude, arrogant and foulmouthed man.

Regardless, they sailed off together for the Holy Land. On the way, Richard stopped to conquer Sicily and Cyprus. In 1191 they landed at Acre, a Muslim port on the Mediterranean Sea. Richard brought miners with him, who dug beneath the walls of the city to weaken their foundations. His men lobbed hard, dense boulders from the mangonels that Richard had brought along from Sicily. Richard's Norman archers fired with his favorite weapon: the crossbow. Interestingly, the crossbow was a weapon that had been forbidden by the Pope as an "inhumane" weapon. Richard invented the Mate-griffon—a great wooden castle covered with flame resistant vinegar, which he personally ascended in order to shoot his crossbow from a greater height— offering a nice view of his targets on the walls of Acre. The city surrendered a month after Richard's arrival.

A squabble erupted over the spoils of Acre that resulted in two of the other small armies going home, and enmity continues to brew between the remaining French and English. They were eighty miles from Jerusalem. Before long, the French left, too, leaving the English and a contingent from Burgundy to take Jerusalem alone. Saladin then arrived with his army.

Richard had 2,700 Muslim prisoners, whom he threatened to execute unless his demands were met. He then negotiated their release in exchange for 1,500 Christian prisoners; 200,000 pieces of gold; and the return of the True Cross. His demands were met with agreement—but Saladin never delivered on his end of the bargain, perhaps he believed that Richard was bluffing. Knowing that there was no way he could march to Jerusalem with all of these prisoners, Richard brought them out in full view of the Muslim Army and butchered them, all of them—including women and children.

Richard then marched across a spider-infested desert to Jerusalem. On the way, Saladin unleashed a 30,000 man attack; first African and Bedouin infantrymen, then the Turkish Calvary. Through the use of new, brilliant battlefield tactics, Richard prevailed.

No one knows why, but Richard never tried to take the city of Jerusalem. He was encamped only twelve miles outside of the city—he could see it in the distance—with fresh horses and plenty of food. Saladin considered Jerusalem lost. Richard shocked both sides when he just up and went home. The Christians now held a strip of land on the coast ninety miles long and ten miles wide.

KING RICHARD THE LIONHEART LIES IN REST
KING RICHARD THE LIONHEART LIES IN REST

RICHARD THE LIONHEART

King Richard the Lionheart (1157-1199) was tall, handsome, strong, athletic, graceful, and charismatic.  He was nicknamed the Lionheart for his tremendous courage and battlefield prowess.  Richard used a two-handed battle sword and rode a massive Spanish stallion.  He loved music, poetry, and bawdy jokes; fine wine and food; hunting and jousting.  He was a master strategist and unequaled leader of men.  Saladin said of The Lionheart: "He is pleasant, upright, magnanimous, and excellent." 

KING ARTHUR

Chretien de Troyes (1135-1190), from Champagne, France, invented the modern novel with his trilogy about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

STAINED GLASS FROM ST. DENIS CATHEDRAL
STAINED GLASS FROM ST. DENIS CATHEDRAL
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL STAINED GLASS
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL STAINED GLASS
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL INTERIOR
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL INTERIOR
NOTRE DAME PARIS CATHEDRAL
NOTRE DAME PARIS CATHEDRAL

GOTHIC CATHEDRALS

The incredible Gothic Cathedrals (built in the shape of the cross) of Europe had their beginnings in France with the work of Abbot Suger who designed and constructed the Cathedral at St. Denis. It was completed in 1151. Amazingly, it was built in a mere three years. The kings of France during the period from the fifth to the nineteenth centuries are buried there.

Previously, Romanesque churches were very dark inside; architects had not yet figured out how to have large and plentiful windows while still providing the support needed for construction of the roof. The new Gothic Cathedrals used piers, vaulted roofs, flying buttresses and exterior buttresses to transfer the weight to the ground.

Most abbeys prior to the Gothic Cathedrals were as austere as the lives of the monks who lived within their walls. Towers, porches, polished stonework, paintings, and gold were not allowed in order to reflect what was believed to be true Christian humility. Now, a new idea took hold that churches should be beautiful to inspire in the congregants the awesome glory of God—the God of light.

The Chartres Cathedral is one of the most beautiful in the world. It doubled as a school of theology, philosophy and literature. Chartres Cathedral has 186 stained glass windows, and its nave, 121 feet high, was unparalleled.

Chartes is also one of the best preserved of all the cathedrals, receiving neither natural nor war-caused damage. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage site. Not only are the windows spectacular, but there is a light show in the evenings that plays off of the outside of the windows; it is said to be amazing.

King Louis VII commanded that Paris must have a cathedral equal to any in existence, and in 1163, new construction began on Notre Dame Cathedral. This cathedral was the most expensive public works project of the Middle Ages. Donations were made from across Europe. Those who had no money delivered building materials to the site.

It is a fact unknown to many, that Notre Dame Cathedral took 200 years to build, starting with Louis VII in 1163. Henry the VI of England was crowned here, as was Mary Stuart, Napoleon and Josephine. Oddly enough, it was originally a Roman temple.

The German poet, Heinrich Heine, said, "Gothic Cathedrals were built by men filled with conviction. We moderns have opinions, but it requires something more than an opinion to build a Gothic Cathedral." The author Ken Follett, in his book The Pillars of the Earth, describes "the irresistible attraction of building a cathedral—the absorbing complexity of the organization, the intellectual challenge of the calculations, the sheer size of the walls, the breathtaking beauty and grandeur of the finished building."

In 1174 the English got in the game by commissioning a new Christ Church Cathedral at Canterbury.

Between 1050 and 1350 eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and ten thousand parish churches were built in Europe. This building boom was unmatched anywhere in the world until the twentieth century—and hardly any further progress was made in construction techniques, according to historian Jean Gimpel (The Cathedral Builders).

The term Gothic was originally intended as an insult, comparing the building style to the wild tribes of the Goths who had destroyed the Roman Empire.

The builders of cathedrals were housed in temporary wooden lodges; these men later came to be known as the free masons. From these men arose the Masonic Orders.

NOTRE DAME DE PARIS CATHEDRAL INTERIOR
NOTRE DAME DE PARIS CATHEDRAL INTERIOR
NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL STAINED GLASS
NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL STAINED GLASS
NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL AT NIGHT
NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL AT NIGHT
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL INTERIOR
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL INTERIOR
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL CEILING
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL CEILING
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL
LINCOLN CATHEDRAL IN ENGLAND . . . THE MOST BEAUTIFUL OF ALL IN MY OPINION
LINCOLN CATHEDRAL IN ENGLAND . . . THE MOST BEAUTIFUL OF ALL IN MY OPINION
SAINTE CHAPPELL
SAINTE CHAPPELL

More by this Author

  • Holy Crusades
    113

    Holy Crusades is about Reconquista of Spain and the Holy Land to protect Christian pilgrims and includes Knights Templar & Hospitaller; First, Second & Peoples Crusades; El Cid; and Pope Urban II.

  • John Wycliffe
    82

    John Wycliffe (1330-1384) is the “Morning Star of the Reformation.” He railed against the wealth of the Church, rejected papal supremacy, and denied the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Eucharist. He...

  • Women of Fox News
    259

    Laura Ingraham, whom I met once, appears often on Fox News as a political commentator. She is a breast cancer survivor. Laura Ingraham is a bestselling author and the sixth most popular radio talk show host in...


Comments 101 comments

CiscoPixie profile image

CiscoPixie 6 years ago from I'm in a world of my own, but aren't we all?

Well done James! That was a fantastic hub, I loved the photos of the cathedrals especially the Notre Dame Cathedral. thumbs up.

CiscoPixie


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

CiscoPixie— Thank you for being my first visitor! I appreciate your accolades very much.


sherrylou57 profile image

sherrylou57 6 years ago from Riverside

Nice James, your pic's are beautiful! wow!


jiberish profile image

jiberish 6 years ago from florida

Another great history lesson, and beautiful pictures.


RevLady profile image

RevLady 6 years ago from Lantana, Florida

The Gothic Cathedrals are stunning and the photography exceptional.

When I read, "The Christians of the Holy Land had become a wealthy but depraved society filled with lazy, lustful, carnal, murderous, adulterous crooks who no longer attended church. Muslim writer 'imad al-Din agreed, describing Christian women as "proud and scornful, foul-fleshed and sinful, ardent and inflamed, tinted and painted, desirable and appetizing, exquisite and graceful, seductive and bullying, with shapely buttocks. Broken down little fools who are ravished and debased by Arab men," for a minute I thought you had mistakenly inserted a paragraph describing our American society today.

Thanks James, for the continued crusades education.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

sherrylou57— Thank you, dear. I appreciate you for tuning in and leaving your remarks.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

jiberish— Thank you, dear. You know I appreciate your affirmation.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

RevLady— You caught that, huh? I always have a purpose behind my words. :D

Thank you, my sister, for your encouragement and sharp acuity.


dusanotes profile image

dusanotes 6 years ago from Windermere, FL

Thanks, James, for this enlightening piece. It seems all roads have led to Israel for many, many years - and that these dear people have borne the brunt of man's brutality for a long, long time. Don White


peacenhim 6 years ago

Great Hub! Perfectly executed with elaborate photographs to enhance the history of the Cathedrals. Thanks!


itakins profile image

itakins 6 years ago from Irl

James-

Truly fascinating historical account and beautiful pictures:I didn't know how the freemasons came about-!


habee profile image

habee 6 years ago from Georgia

"Will no one rid me of this worrisome priest?" Great stuff. I'm working on a hub about the real man behind the Arthurian legend.


eovery profile image

eovery 6 years ago from MIddle of the Boondocks of Iowa

Like I say, you keep teaching me things on every hub.

Keep on Hubbing!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

dusanotes— Yes, Don, you are so right. The Holy Land has been much fought over. I am surely blessed to have been able to walk that ground in October. You are welcome and thank you.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

peacenhim— Thank you for your nice compliments and you're welcome.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

itakins— Thank you very much for your laudations. I enjoyed reading your comments. And I appreciate the visitation.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

habee— There's that quote I was looking for! Thanks for that. I will be very interested in reading your King Arthur Hub when it's done. I appreciate the visit.


SirDent 6 years ago

Now I know where the word assassin actually comes from. I used to smoke a lot of pot and smoked Hashish a few times also. (keep that underwrap) :P

Great hub and I love the photoes. Lots of history. You certainly are a great historian.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

eovery— It is my pleasure. It is gratifying to read that you find it useful. Thanks!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

SirDent— I won't tell anybody if you won't. :)

Why, thank you, sir. I sure appreciate your gracious compliments. Makes me feel pretty good.


advisor4qb profile image

advisor4qb 6 years ago from On New Footing

Awesome photography, and very informative and interesting hub!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

advisor4qb— Why, thank you dear. How nice of you to say so. I'm glad you came to visit.


Kebennett1 profile image

Kebennett1 6 years ago from San Bernardino County, California

James, Wonderful continuance of our travel through the crusades! Your research is always so thorough and I love the Artwork and photography you use. I always learn something new, even if I thought I had already studied it! Thank you.


creativeone59 profile image

creativeone59 6 years ago from Gold Canyon, Arizona

Thanks James, for a very knowledgeable an enlightening hub, I appreciate your great efforts. thanks again for sharing. Godspeed. creativeone59


carolina muscle profile image

carolina muscle 6 years ago from Charlotte, North Carolina

Beautifully done, James!


ethel smith profile image

ethel smith 6 years ago from Kingston-Upon-Hull

Great images. The poor old church is never as poor as it claims:)


Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 6 years ago from London, UK

I learned and learn so much from your hubs and sincerely thank you for putting all your efforts into research.


KittyKnowsBest profile image

KittyKnowsBest 6 years ago

I love this era of art its one of my favorites as an artist


Kaie Arwen profile image

Kaie Arwen 6 years ago

Hey teacher........... you've given the class a fantastic lecture, and you've made it exciting in a way that I'd imagine more than a few to be cranking out further research on their own.

and the cathedrals............ have to tell you the pictures drew a huge amount of my attention. They are breathtaking!


Tom Whitworth profile image

Tom Whitworth 6 years ago from Moundsville, WV

James you've outdone yourself once again. Thank you for your informative Hub. I still think you should write a history book!!!!!!!!!!!


Tom Cornett profile image

Tom Cornett 6 years ago from Ohio

Great hub James and as always...so well done. Thanks much! :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kenbennett1— Your wonderful words have reached my eyes and your accolades are warmly received by my heart. Thank you very much for taking the time to read this article and respond so graciously.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

creatineone59— You are welcome. It is nice to be acknowledged by you. Thank you for your kind compliments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

carolina muscle— Thank you, sir, for saying so. I appreciate your readership.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ethel smith— Thank you! I am well pleased that you enjoyed the journey.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Hello, hello,— Why, you are surely welcome. It was my pleasure. Thank you for your fine comments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

KittyKnowsBest— I appreciate you coming by to visit and leaving word. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kaie,

Thank you for your gracious compliments. One of my aims is to spur folks to investigate further this history. I have to keep these Hubs as short as possible so there is far more to the story than the highlights I presented here. I appreciate your encouragement.

J


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Tom Whitworth— You are surely welcome, Tom. I enjoyed putting this together. If I could get paid for writing books, that would be a dream come true.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Tom Cornett— It's great to see you here, brother. I sincerely appreciate you for leaving your kind comments.


christalluna1124 profile image

christalluna1124 6 years ago from Dallas Texas

James ,

what a beautiful hub and the photographs are spectacular. I am learning alot about the different religions by reading your hubs. Looking forward to another soon.

Warmest regards,

Chris


opinion duck 6 years ago

James

Another excellent hub presentation. I enjoyed the part about Richard.

The thing I liked about England was all the Cathedrals and Castles.

As for the Crusades themselves, it interesting to see a battle fought for God by both sides. Possibly the same God, but only side can win in this case. It seems like the game isn't over yet, so there is no winner at this juncture/

just a thought.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

christalluna1124— Why, thank you, Chris. I am very pleased to read your words. As James Brown said "I feel good!" :D

Faithfully Yours,

James


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

opinion duck— Thank you for your compliments, OD. I love castles and cathedrals and have been blessed to visit a number of them.

"The will of God prevails — In great contests each party claims to act in accordance with the will of God. Both may be, and one must be wrong. God cannot be for, and against the same thing at the same time. In the present civil war it is quite possible that God's purpose is somewhat different from the purpose of either party — and yet the human instrumentalities, working just as they do, are of the best adaptation to effect this."

Abraham Lincoln

Second Inaugural Address


prettydarkhorse profile image

prettydarkhorse 6 years ago from US

Hi James, NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL is awesome by night too, I entered there during the day, it is beautiful too like all the rest, I need to read this again, cant get all in one reading. I like that you write about history of Crusades in the 12th to 15th as I lack necessary knowledge on what happened during this time, history in this particular time,

thanks James, have a good day! Maita


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

prettydarkhorse— Hi! I love history and I love to teach or write about history in spite of my complete lack of qualifications. Luckily for me, Hub Pages has never asked for my credentials. :D

Thank you for your loyal support and ongoing encouragement. It is Hubbers like you that keep me keeping on.


opinion duck 6 years ago

James

Again you are the renowned hisorian.


James 6 years ago

Historian

Excuse the typo

Once I post I can't edit.


opinion duck 6 years ago

Weird it put your name

Historian

BTW the sort function on Hubpsges is no longer working for me. Must be the carma.


H P Roychoudhury profile image

H P Roychoudhury 6 years ago from Guwahati, India

Another great hub of historical events brings stimulus even after the lapse of so many centuries in rousing human civilization.


Lita C. Malicdem 6 years ago

What awesome grandeur I saw in those photos of the cathedrals. Had a great visit. I enjoyed it very much.


Tamarind 6 years ago

Beautiful pictures in this hub. Very interesting topic. Thanks.


Will Benson 6 years ago

Incredible pictures and great information. Thanks for writing it.


DGMischSr profile image

DGMischSr 6 years ago from Maricopa, AZ

Great Hub James. The pictures are awesome & the history lesson very informative. Let's get these hubs out for more to read & be educated.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

opinion duck— Thank you for that nice compliment. I make typos, too. Your grace came through.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

opinion duck— You're still further ahead than me. I don't even know what the sort function is. :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

H P Roychoudhury— I love the way you posited your comment, HP. "Stimulus" and "rousing". I'm glad you find history to be so because I surely do. Thanks for coming by and leaving your kind comments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Lita C. Malicdem— Thank you for coming. I am well pleased that you enjoyed your visit. More cathedrals to come in the next episode. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Tamarind— You are welcome. I'm gratified to read your remarks. Thanks for the visit.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Will Benson— You are surely welcome. Thank you for expressing your appreciation of my work. Welcome to HubPages!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

DGMischSr— Well, hello there DG. I've been away a couple days. I see I have some catching up to do. Any help I can get finding a larger audience will make me very happy. Thanks for the compliments, brother.


James Mark profile image

James Mark 6 years ago from York, England

Thank you for this stimulating article - I'll make a mental note to do some reading on this period.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

James Mark— You are quite welcome. A lot went on I could not give space to in this Hub length so by all means explore. Thank you for coming by and leaving your comments. Welcome to HubPages!


godpreacher profile image

godpreacher 6 years ago from Atlanta,Ga.

Hello James,

Great hub.

well put together and very informative.

The pictures are exceptional.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Hello godpreacher! Thank you. I'm glad you enjoyed the words and the pictures. I'm going to visit soon to see what you've been writing. I bookmarked your profile page. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community.


stars439 profile image

stars439 6 years ago from Louisiana, The Magnolia and Pelican State.

Fantastic work. Extremely educational and great photography.God Bless you for going to such lengths to inform us of the knowledge related to our Lord.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

stars439— Thank you! I have been greatly blessed this very week, my brother. I appreciate your affirmation. Thanks for reading.


TJBaruch profile image

TJBaruch 6 years ago from Clearwater, FL

Beautiful hug, impressive! Thank you!


Duchess OBlunt 6 years ago

I love to come on over to your hubs every once in awhile. I'm sure to get a good history lesson every time. This was quite fascinating, and I will agree with everyone else. Your pictures help make it all come alive.

Good job as usual James.


Kilby profile image

Kilby 6 years ago

This hub filled in many gaps for me. Having many of the same interests, I'd be interested in any books you recommend that I read. I'm very new to hub pages, but would really enjoy joining your cause to spread knowledge of the late middle ages.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Duchess OBlunt— I apologize for the delay in responding. I have been away sans computer.

I am surely glad you do come by to visit. Thank you for your kindly comments. I enjoy your work also.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

TJBaruch— I'm sorry. I missed this comment earlier. Thank you and you're quite welcome, sir.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Kilby— I am well pleased to meet a kindred spirit. I highly recommend "Europe" by Davies.

Welcome to HubPages. I bookmarked your profile page just now to remind me to get over and read your work soon. Thanks for the visit.


mike1242 profile image

mike1242 6 years ago from London

Great Hub, enjoyed the history about the crusades


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Thank you very much. I'm glad you enjoyed it. Welcome to the HubPages Community.


CJ Williams profile image

CJ Williams 6 years ago

Now this is a great example of a useful and informative hub. The pictures really added to the text. The history of "assassins" might not be politically correct these days! Thanks for a great read.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

CJ Williams— Thank you for the affirmation, kind sir. I appreciate your comments much. And you are welcome.


Loves To Read profile image

Loves To Read 6 years ago

Although relatively new to hubpages i was just browsing around and came upon this hub of yours James. Wow!!! what a source of information you are. I can't believe the wealth of those eras. Those cathedrals would be worth a fortune by today's standards and the craftsmanship second to none. I find the part about Adam dying with the seed from the Garden of Eden in his mouth. And that it grew to become the Cross that Our Saviour was Crucified on, a very interesting piece of knowledge. Great hub, fantastic pictures.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Loves To Read— Welcome to the Hub Pages Community! You are surely right that those cathedrals are worth a fortune. In fact, my understanding is that nobody could afford to build them today. You know, many of them took two hundred years to build! Generations of the same families worked on them. So a man might finish what his great-great grandpa started! I find that fascinating. Anyway . . . Thank you for reading and for your gracious compliments. :)


BDazzler profile image

BDazzler 6 years ago from Gulf Coast, USA

"dressed in white tunics, slit up the side; wearing knee-high red leather boots with orange linings. She claimed that both she and her women were accompanying the Crusaders in order to help care for the wounded, but the women’s presence proved to be a distraction. "

Gee.... ya, think? ... That uniform would be only slightly less distracting that the chain-mail bikinis on Xena, Warrior Princess!

This chick seems to define the term "Cougar" :)

Great hub, BTW!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

BDazzler— Ha! That is kinda funny, isn't it? Perhaps Eleanor of Aquitaine is the original cougar! Thanks for coming and complimenting my work. Great to see ya. :-)


AlexiusComnenus profile image

AlexiusComnenus 6 years ago from GA

Excellent hub! As an avid student of the Eastern Empire I cannot say I much like the crusade(s) but your hub is well written and captivating.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

AlexiusComnenus— Thank you! I greatly appreciate your gracious comments.


Joshua Kell profile image

Joshua Kell 6 years ago from Arizona

Awesome reseach, and great work. Thanks.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Joshua Kell— Thank you so much for the high praise, brother. And you are welcome.


DeBorrah K. Ogans profile image

DeBorrah K. Ogans 6 years ago

James A . Watkins, Fascinating discourse! Much here to ponder and digest! I always know that I can count on you for a great homily on the church inclusive of the surrounding history! It is always mind boggling all the behind the scene man induced mayhem, murders & emotional drama! Perhaps they believed that God only sees and hears some things or confession to a priest eliminated or pardoned repentance? All the things that have been and are done in the name of the Lord… It really is important to have a personal relationship through Jesus Christ and know the Word for yourself!

Wonderful illustrations! What superb craftsmanship, amazing breathtaking architecture in those Cathedrals! Thankful to have actually visited Notre Dame! Again wonderful discourse professor!

Thank you as always for sharing your thorough, informative educational concise narratives! In His love, Peace & Blessings!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

DeBorrah K. Ogans— Thank you! Mayhem is right. Confession was a huge part of the penitential system, to be sure. Yes, I surely agree with you that studying the Word and having relationship with the Lord is paramount. I'm glad you liked the illustrations. I surely agree that the architecture is awesome. You're welcome and thank you for your love and blessings. You're the best!


Reece 6 years ago

Have u ever thought all the assassinations are linked with the deaths of the merchant King,William Monferret, Saladin,MuamMualim they all cause more cilvilian deaths then anyone think about it.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Reece— Is this in reference to a video game? This MuamMualim? I cannot find a historical person with this name.


davidseeger profile image

davidseeger 6 years ago from Bethany, OK

I enjoyed your hub here. A good overview of European history. There is a couple of tidbits I would like to add about Richard I. These have always intrigued me. Despite Robin Hood's and Sir Walter Scott's loyalty to Richard, He never cared much for England. He considered the language to be barbaric and spoke it as seldom as possible. He was raised by his mother, Elinore of Aquitaine in France and prefered it all of his life. As the heir apparent of the duchy he paid homage to the King of France. While King of England he add a lion representing the Duchy Aquitaine to his arms. There was already a lion for Normandy on the English royal arms. None of this particularly significant but a bit of interestin trivia.

Thanks for joining me, I am going to do the same with you because of all the interesting history you open.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

davidseeger— Thank you! I am glad you enjoyed it. And you are most welcome. I greatly appreciate these fascinating facts you have added to this story. They are more than trivial; they are pertinent to understanding Richard more fully. I look forward to reading your work on HubPages.


Hopmoney wizard profile image

Hopmoney wizard 6 years ago from barak

I was amazed by the structures of these cathedrals. you did great on your hub. keep up the good work. But behind this structures is a great story, a story about power, envy, and control but theres also martyrdom and you explained it well.

http://misterburkete.blogetery.com/

http://www.teethwhiteningreviews.ca/


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Hopmoney wizard— Did you just send me an ad for penis enlargement!? I was thinking more about a reduction.


zala 5 years ago

why didn't richard the lion heart learn English

Crusade???? ('_')


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

zala— I do not know the answer to your question. But I appreciate you reading my article. :D


Jimmy Fuentes profile image

Jimmy Fuentes 5 years ago from Rancho Cucamonga

Those pics are amazing. I have always wanted to go to englan (my grandmother was from there), and this only convinces me that much more. I suppose I will wait for the exchange rate to improve, hahahaha. Anyway, great hub and wonderful pictures


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Jimmy Fuentes— Thank you for your kind compliments. I have been to England, Scotland, and Wales—once. I am well pleased that you enjoyed this Hub.


JohnBarret profile image

JohnBarret 5 years ago

Very informative article.

Thanks for sharing.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

JohnBarret— You are welcome. Thank you for reading my article. I appreciate your comments.


ram_m profile image

ram_m 5 years ago from India

You have painstakingly researched and explained about those tumultuous and momentous times beautifully. A great hub indeed.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

ram_m— Thank you very much for your gracious compliments. It is good to hear from you. I look forward to reading your Hubs.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working