BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

Computer Architecture - is the design of computers, including their instruction sets, hardware components, and system organization.

Most computers follow the Von Neumann Architecture, also known as Stored Program Architecture or the Fetch-Decode-Execute Architecture. It simply means that programs (together with data) are stored in main memory during execution.

Type of Programming Languages:

1. Machine Language

2. Assembly Language

3. High-Level Language

4. 4GL Language

  • · Machine Language – the natural or primitive language that the computer actually understands. This programming language consists of 0’s and 1’s which makes programmning very difficult.
  • · Assembly Language – a programming language that uses “abbreviations” or mnemonics in place of binary patterns in order to make the task of programming easier.
  • · Assembler – is a special program that translates assembly langugae mnemonics into machine language.
  • · Both Machine Language and Assembly Language are Low-Level Languages.
  • · High – Level Language – a programming language that uses English-like commands or instructions. Also known as the third generation language. A compiler is a special program that translates high-level language instructions into machine language. Examples are FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, and PASCAL.
  • · Fourth-Generation Language(4GL) – is a programming language designed with a specific purpose in mind such as the develoment of commercial business software.

All 4GLs are designed to reduce:

· Programming effort

· The time it takes to develop software

· The cost of software development

Advantages of High-Level Languages:

1. Easy to learn.

2. Predefined Functions.

3. Portability.

Advantages of Low-Level Languages:

1. Compact Code

2. Speed

3. Flexible

More by this Author

  • Functional Units of A Computer
    36

    Input Unit The input unit accepts coded information from human operators or from other computers. Examples: Keyboard, joystick, mouse, input pen, touch screen, trackball, scanner, bar code readers,...

  • Connections Between the Processor and the MM
    1

    The PC (Program Counter) contains the memory address of the instruction to be executed. During execution, the contents of the PC are updated to point to the next instruction. Every time that an instruction is to be...

  • Computer Bus Structure
    60

    Bus Structure A bus is a collection of wires that connect several devices within a computer system. When a word of data is transferred between units, all its bits are transferred in parallel. A computer must have...


Comments 2 comments

muhammad Alhasan B.A 4 years ago

Thi is good matrial but given with out more examples to make a leanar to. Understand thans alot


Hira 10 months ago

this is very good concepts.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working